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Thus 34,000 unitary enterprises failed to make their accounting for the results of 1999 available. The reasons could be connected to the fact that they were in the process of reorganizing, liquidation, or bankruptcy, and also to their conducting accounting according to a simplified system due to their size (small unitary enterprises).

      1. Dynamics and structure of state enterprises by forms of property ownership and branches in the 1990s

As was shown above, the sector of unitary enterprises includes enterprises owned by the Russian Federation, its subjects (republics, krais, oblasts, etc), and municipal formations. Not possessing accurate data on the number of unitary enterprises for each of these forms of property ownership, for purposes of analysis one may turn to information from the State Committee on Property of the Russian Federation data bank for state enterprises on an independent balance sheet for 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1998 (Table 3).

Table 3

Number and structure of state enterprises on an independent balance sheet according by form of property ownership in 1993-1998

Date

Total

Federal ownership

Republican ownership

Krai, oblast ownership

Constituent members of the Russian Federation ownership

Municipal ownership

units

in %

units

in %

units

in %

units

in %

units

in %

units

in %

1 Feb. 1993

199459

100

107887

54.1

11572

5.8

13573

6.8

25145

12.6

66427

33.3

1 Jan 1994,

of 1993, %

156635

78.5

100

63284

58.7

40.4

10765

93.0

6.9

15633

115.2

10.0

26398

105.0

16.9

66953

100.8

42.7

1 Jan 1995,

of 1994, %

126846

81.0

100

45384

71.7

35.8

10928

101.5

8.6

11829

75.7

9.3

22757

86.2

17.9

58705

87.7

46.3

1July 1995,

of 1.01.

1995, %

119879

94.5

100

41629

91.7

34.7

10905

99.8

9.1

11617

98.2

9.7

22522

99.0

18.8

55728

94.9

46.5

1 Jan 1996,

of 1 Jan

1995, %;

of 1 July

1995, %

90778

71.6

75.7

100

33290

73.4

80.0

36.7

8209

75.1

75.3

9.0

7218

61.0

62.1

8.0

15427

67.8

68.5

17.0

42061

71.6

75.5

46.3

1 June1996,

of 1996, %

88864

97.9

100

31824

95.6

35.8

7570

92.2

8.5

6885

95.4

7.7

14455

93.7

16.3

42585

101.2

47.9

1 Jan1998,

of 1 Jan

1996, %;

of 1 June

1996, %;

of 1 Feb

1993, %

88264

97.2

99.3

44.3

100

29666

89.1

93.2

27.5

33.6

7872

95.9

104.0

68.0

8.9

7393

102.4

107.4

54.5

8.4

15265

98.9

105.6

60.7

17.3

43333

103.0

101.8

65.2

49.1

Doinikov*

87714

100

29550

337

14528

16.6

43636

49.7

* - The number of unitary enterprises without indication of concrete data, presumably the number of state enterprises on an independent balance sheet as of the beginning of 1999.

Source: State Committee on Property of the Russian Federation data bank; I.V. Doinikov. Pravovoe regulirovanie gosudarstvennogo predprinimatel’stva: Uchebno-metodicheskoe posobie (Judicial regulating of state business enterprises: An learning and methodological textbook). Moscow: PRIOR Publishing House, 2001, 102; calculations by the authors.

The data from Table 3 show that the basic tendency in the correlation among diverse types of state enterprises in the 1990s was the running-ahead decrease in the number of federal state enterprises (almost by four times) in comparison with state enterprises of republics within the Russian Federations and of municipal formations (by about one third). State enterprises belonging to the property ownership of krais and oblasts occupied an intermediate position among them: their number decreased by forty-five percent.

While the number of federal state enterprises decreased undeviatingly, the dynamics of state enterprises of other forms of property ownership were not so unambiguous. Thus the number of republican state enterprises in 1994 grew by 1.5 percent, and in 1996-1997 by four percent. The number of state enterprises belonging to the property ownership of krais and oblasts as of 1 January 1994 grew by sixteen percent in comparison with the beginning of 1993, while between 1 January 1996 and 1 January 1998 the number grew by 2.4 percent. For municipal enterprises the analogous indicators comprised 0.8 percent and three percent, respectively.

The factual stagnation of the privatization process which began in the summer of 1996 can be clearly seen from Table 3. The number of state enterprises on an independent balance sheet as of 1 January 1998 was practically unchanged in comparison with 1 Juune 1996. Moroever, the number of state enterprises had risen for all forms of property ownership (with the exception of federal ownership).

The basic results of all these processes were:

- a time and a half decrease in the share of federal state enterprises in the overall mass of state enterprises on an independent balance sheet (from fifty-four percent at the beginning of 1993 to thirty-three to thirty-seven percent in 1995-1998);

- a practically undeviating growth in the share of municipal enterprises (from one third at the beginning of 1993 to almost one half at the beginning of 1998;

- the share of state enterprises belonging to the property ownership of constituent members of the Russian Federation grew the least (from 12.6 percent at the beginning of 1993 to about seventeen or eighteen percent in the following years);

- Republican enterprises began predominating in the mass of state enterprises belonging to the property ownership of constituent members of the Russian Federation beginning in early 1996,2

although the republics comprise less than one quarter of all constituent members of the Russian Federation, and their proportion of the aggregate population of the country as of the beginning of 1998 comprised about sixteen percent, and about thirteen percent in the gross regional product in 1997 for Russia as a whole.

The structure of state enterprises on an independent balance sheet in the 1990s is represented below (Table 4).

Table 4

Structure of state and municipal enterprises in Russia in 1993-1998 on independent balance sheets by branches of industry (in percentages)

Branches

As of 1Feb

1993

As of

1Jan

1994

As of

1Jan

1995

As of

1July

1995

As of

1Jan

1996

As of

1June

1996

As of

1April

1997

As of

1Jan

1998

Light industry

1.1

1.0

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.7

Food industry

2.4

2.5

2.3

2.2

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.6

Construction enterprises

7.2

7.9

7.2

6.9

5.5

5.2

4.9

4.8

Construction materials industry

1.3

1.3

1.0

1.0

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

Agricultural enterprises and equipment maintenance servicing for agriculture

7.2

6.8

6.4

6.8

7.1

7.2

7.2

7.2

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