WWW.DISSERS.RU


...
    !

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 5 | 6 || 8 | 9 |   ...   | 17 |

From the viewpoint of contribution intoproduction of individual products, a certain labor division between sectors maybe seen. The enterprises remain leaders in the production of grain, sugar-beet,sunflower, i.e., the products which either return to the production (foddergrain) or go to the industrial processing (bread, combined fodder, sugar,vegetable oil, etc.) and require industrial technologies. The privatehouseholds give the main share of the fresh produce: 9/10 of the potatoes andover 3/4 of the vegetables. The production of the meat and milk has almost byshifted to the individual sector, though the latter depends greatly upon thefodder produced by large-size entities. The eggs, being a more industrialproduce, are produced, in a great extent, by large entities.

Table 2.14

Production of main animal produce in1996


1996

1996, % of

1995 as %


mn mt

1995

1991-1994

1986-1990

of 1994

Meat (cattle and poultry at slaughter, weighted alive)


8.6


91.5


68.6


58.0


86.0

Milk

35.7

90.8

76.0

65.8

93.0

Eggs,bn

31.5

93.5

75.2

65.8

90.0

Source: Social Economic Situation of Russiain 1996. P. 53.

Table 2.15

Shares of different categories of economiesin rural produce


Rural enterprises

Private farms

Private households


1992

1994

1995

1996

1992

1994

1995

1996

1992

1994

1995

1996

Grain

97.4

94.2

94.4

95.0

2.1

5.1

4.7

5.0

0.5

0.7

0.9

0.0

Sugar-beet

97.8

95.8

96.0

96.0

2.0

3.5

4.0

3.0

0.2

0.7

0.0

1.0

Sunflower

93.0

88.2

86.0

87.0

5.8

10.2

12.0

11.0

1.2

1.6

2.0

2.0

Potatoes

21.2

11.0

9.2

9.1

0.8

0.9

0.9

0.9

78.0

88.1

89.9

90.0

Vegetables

44.5

32.0

25.7

21.9

0.8

1.0

1.3

1.1

54.7

67.0

73.0

77.0

Meat

64.0

55.7

50.5

47.2

0.7

1.4

1.7

1.8

35.3

42.9

47.8

51.0

Milk

68.1

60.0

56.7

53.2

0.5

1.3

1.5

1.8

31.4

38.7

41.7

45.0

Eggs

73.8

70.9

69.7

68.5

0.1

0.3

0.3

0.5

26.1

28.8

30.0

31.0

Source: Social Economic Situation of Russiain 1995. P. 78, 80. Social Economic Situation of Russia in 1996, P.51-53

Markets of rural produce andfood

During the last year, the markets of theagricultural produce and food showed the stabilization of the institutionaltrends which had begun several years before.

The governmental presence in theagricultural and food markets continues reducing. The specific share of thegovernmental purchases from the grain market is decreasing at the fastestrates; in the animals breeding the relevant share stays high, yet (seeTable2.16). It should benoted that the supplies of the animal produce to the governmental funds aredetermined by the formal index: supplies to the entities fixed by thegovernmental order for the relevant produce. These are, as a rule, the localprivatized meat and milk processing enterprises. The statistics fixes thesupplies to them as the supplies to the government. Hence, the relatively highfigures of the governmental purchases of the rural produce do formally reflectthis fact, but do not reflect the real participation of the State in theproduce distribution. From 1996, the Nizhni Novgorod region banned all thegovernmental supplies of the rural produce; de facto, this means the ban of thegovernment order.

Table 2.16.

Share of governmental purchase in the totalsales volume, %

1995

1996

Grain

35

33

Sugar-beet

21

3

Sunflower

19

3

Potatoes

14

8

Vegetables

47

31

Cattle and poultry,weighted alive

60

51

Milk and dairyproducts

80

71

Eggs

87

79

Source: Short-term Economic Indexes,Russian Federation, 1996. Moscow: Goscomstat. 1997. P.55

On the background of the general reductionof purchase to the food funds, the share of the purchase to the federal foodfund reduced the most significantly. This dynamics is especially well seen withthe example of the grain market of the last four years.

The volume of purchase to the regional fundshas shrinked, as well: if compared with 1993 (the first year of the regionalfunds) it reduced almost 2.5‑fold; this shows the reduction of the influence of the localadministrations on the producers in the situation of the limited localbudgets.

The 1996 volumes of the grain purchase tothe regional funds were close to those of 1995: 8.2mnmt; this was due to boththe supplies of the grain to the regional funds as repayments of the creditsagainst goods granted to rural entities at the beginning of 1996 and theexistence, in certain regions of the bans on and suspensions of the grainoutflow, as well as other administrative prohibitions.

With the Russia-wide trend towards thereduction of the governmental purchases, some regions see the reinforcement ofthe government role in the redistribution of the rural economy produce (seeTable2.17).

Table 2.17.

Indexes of gross grain harvest andgovernmental purchases for
certain regions ofRussia, %

Federationsubject

Grossharvest

Governmentalpurchases

Brianskregion

80

112

Moscowregion

122

145

Tularegion

108

203

Yaroslavlregion

113

139

Mordovia

158

415

Chuvashia

161

270

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 5 | 6 || 8 | 9 |   ...   | 17 |



2011 www.dissers.ru -

, .
, , , , 1-2 .