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13.7

17.8

5.1

1971

54.3

46.3

38.9

44.6

20.8

13.5

19.7

16.6

18.1

2.9

1972

53.8

54.0

31.9

41.4

17.1

13.3

18.8

21.9

17.0

2.8

1973

50.0

48.6

32.8

38.0

18.0

11.4

24.3

17.3

7.4

-3.5

1974

48.7

53.6

35.1

34.5

15.9

12.2

27.1

7.3

-12.9

2.3

1975

48.5

53.6

43.0

44.5

20.9

23.6

33.4

14.1

-15.0

11.6

1976

47.9

57.3

42.6

46.2

26.1

21.9

31.0

9.4

-20.6

10.1

1977

43.2

55.9

39.7

41.6

25.4

18.4

29.4

8.3

-31.5

3.8

1978

45.1

52.4

43.2

39.0

22.5

18.0

31.0

6.0

-45.3

2.9

1979

45.6

49.8

42.3

38.4

25.4

13.3

29.5

6.1

-39.7

0.8

1980

47.3

51.5

41.2

40.8

28.2

15.5

32.7

4.6

-38.2

10.5

1981

48.6

51.6

44.2

40.8

25.4

15.3

29.1

9.8

-37.0

10.5

1982

51.9

50.5

45.1

49.6

26.6

17.9

35.2

22.5

-20.5

17.1

1983

52.1

51.2

41.3

44.9

27.1

18.3

33.6

18.6

-4.4

18.9

1984

47.8

44.8

40.3

40.6

26.5

13.6

33.6

20.0

-10.2

16.2

1985

46.6

46.6

37.9

41.3

26.9

14.0

32.1

24.3

-4.9

15.5

1986

45.1

43.5

36.7

36.6

23.5

9.6

31.8

33.4

18.4

17.3

1987

44.0

41.6

34.2

34.6

18.2

7.5

29.2

24.1

14.1

14.6

1988

44.3

41.5

35.4

34.6

14.1

4.6

25.2

26.2

13.1

7.7

1989

45.4

41.7

37.1

35.3

16.6

3.1

27.5

14.9

16.1

4.0

1990

44.7

42.8

34.6

35.7

17.2

8.5

28.8

20.8

11.4

4.0

1991

44.2

41.2

35.8

35.7

19.6

18.8

31.4

28.9

15.3

14.0

1992

43.3

39.8

36.8

36.5

22.3

25.2

32.2

29.1

20.0

15.1

1993

41.6

40.8

40.6

35.6

22.2

22.6

28.7

20.1

15.6

12.3

1994

39.9

36.9

33.0

32.0

22.1

17.6

26.1

15.2

1.8

7.2

1995

38.9

33.4

32.6

30.0

19.4

15.2

20.2

13.7

-1.6

5.9


1 Although members from the Senate can be appointed to theexecutive this is very rare.

2 The Yukon Act, Northwest TerritoriesAct, Nunavut Act, Government Organisation Act, and theFederal Interpretation Act.

3 Constitution Act, 1867, s.91(3).

4 Constitution Act, 1867, s. 92(2).

5 Except in Quebec. The details of Quebec’s tax system are covered in latersections of the paper. See Section D. Systems of Tax Harmonization and TaxCollection.

6 See Section D Systems of TaxHarmonization and Tax Collection for furtherdetails.

7 Constitution Act, 1867, s.92A(3)

8 Constitution Act, 1867, s.94A

9 Constitution Act, 1867, s. 95. Both agriculture and immigration are under thisprovision.

10 It should be noted that although the federal government has thejurisdiction to legislate in the area of criminal law the provinces areresponsible for the administration of criminal law.

11 This is a slight simplification for the purposes of clarity. Forfull details on the tax sharing arrangements between governments see Section D.

12 Most conditions ensure accessibility and portability of benefits.For greater details on the conditions attached to these transfers see Section CSystem of Intergovernmental Transfers.

13 See the Constitution Act,1982 s. 36

14 Constitution Act, 1982 s. 36(2).

15 Peter Hogg,Constitutional Law of Canada, 4th ed (Toronto,Carswell,1996), p. 142.

16 Constitution Act 1867, s. 91(3)

17 Constitution Act 1867,s.91(1A)

18 Constitution Act 1867, s. 106.

19 Re Canada Assistance Plan [1991] 1 S.C.R. 525. For a detailed explanation of this case seeHogg, 1996, p. 149-150.

20 Quebec has consistently rejected the legitimacy of the federalgovernment’s spendingpower. For further details on the use of the federal spending power see SectionC System of Intergovernmental Transfers.

21 The government of Quebec did not sign the Agreement.

22 For the specific details on the use of the spending power seeThe Social Union Framework Agreement, section 5. It should be noted that one of Quebec’s reasons for not signing theAgreement concerned the provisions recognising the legitimacy of the federalspending power.

23 This process will be explained later in this section.

24 See the Constitution Acts, 1982 ss. 38-49

25 For a thorough description of this topic see Hogg, 1996,209-214.

26 Supreme Court Act, s.53.

27 The Constitution Act, 1867 s.96.

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