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  1. By the level of tax collection in the federal budget (1998).
  2. By the share of cash money in taxes on average between 1996 and9 months of 1998.
  3. By a ratio of tax receipts to GRP (1997).
  4. By a ratio of tax receipts to payroll fund (1997)).
  5. By the level of diversification of tax receipts structure to thetypes of taxes (1998). In this case regions are divided into six typesaccording to tax variance.
  6. By the level of diversification of industrial (1998). Here areseven types according to variance indicator.
  7. The share of federal budget in tax receipts in the subjects ofFederation (1998).

As in the first part of research dedicatedto the balances of financial flows between the Center and the regions, herealso all >

The majority of indicators characterizingtax receipts and their structure, etc. is determined by a whole set of verydifferent factors. In particular, reasons for regional differences in the taxburden on GRP have both objective and subjective character. The former includeits structure, the latter include tax policy conducted by the regional andlocal authorities. It is also noted, that an increased share of individualtaxes in the whole tax volume is characteristic of economicallyunderdeveloped regions with a weak diversification of the economy. An importantfactor which determines an increased share of branches of the economy in taxreceipts is their regional specialization.


Share of‘money intaxes

Above 60%

40 – 60%

Less than40%


Saint-Petersburg city, Krasnodarkrai, Stavropol krai, Moscow oblast, Astrakhan oblast, Volgograd oblast,Novgorod oblast, Kaluga oblast, Kaliningrad oblast, Tula oblast, Republic ofAltai, Ingush Republic, Nenetsian AO.

Khabarovsk krai, Primorsky krai,Vladimir oblast, Ryazan oblast, Irkutsk oblast, Rostov oblast, Magadan oblast,Murmansk oblast, Vologda oblast, Novosibirsk oblast, Belgorod oblast, Voronezhoblast, Leningrad oblast, Sverdlovsk oblast, Kirov oblast, Yaroslavl oblast,Tver oblast, Amur oblast, Saratov oblast, Sakhalin oblast, Tambov oblast,Republic of North Osetia - Alania, Udmurt Republic, Republic of Mordovia,Republic of Karelia, Komi - Permyak AO.

Altai krai, Chita oblast,Arkhangelsk oblast, Kursk oblast, Ivanovo oblast, Ulianovsk oblast, Kemerovooblast, Republic of Khakasia, Republic of Buryatia, Evenk AO.


Moscow city, Lipetsk oblast, Samaraoblast, Karach-Cherkesian Republic, Koryakian AO, Taymyr (Dolgano- Nenetsian)AO, Aguinsky Buryat AO.

Krasnoyarsk krai, Oryol oblast,Smolensk oblast, Pskov oblast, Nizhny Novgorod oblast, Bryansk oblast, Tomskoblast, Perm oblast, Tyumen oblast, Penza oblast, Kamchatka oblast, Orenburgoblast, Chelyabinsk oblast, Republic of Tyva, Republic of Adygea, Republic ofBashkortostan, Republic of Kalmykia, Republic of Tatarstan, Republic ofDagestan, Ust’ -OrdaBuryat AO, Khanty - Mansi AO, Yevreyskaya AO.

Kostroma oblast, Omsk oblast, Kurganoblast, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, Republicof Mariy El, Republic of Komi, Chuvash Republic, Chukotka AO, Yamal - NenetsianAO.

30. Regional typology according to thelevel and dynamics of budget security of the population*


It is worth noting, that for the period1992-1995 in the absolute majority of regions either a fall in budget securitytook place or the level of budget security remained stable. Only in eightregions the index growth was above the 10 percent, out of which only in Moscowand the Komi Republic this level was originally high (above 120 percent of theaverage all-Russia level). Regional differentiation by the criteria underconsideration remains high.

Budget security:


Growth (growth above10%)

Stability (within 10%adjustment)

Decline (decline by morethan 10%)

High (more than 120% of the averageall-Russia index)

Moscow city, Republic ofKomi.

Irkutsk oblast, Kamchatka oblast,Krasnoyarsk krai, Primorsky krai, Khanty - Mansi AO, Yamal - Nenetsian, Taymyr(Dolgano- Nenetsian) AO, Evenk AO.

Murmansk oblast, Samara oblast,Kemerovo oblast, Omsk oblast, Tyumen oblast, Magadan oblast, Sakhalin oblast,Khabarovsk krai, Republic of Karelia, Republic of Kalmykia, Republic ofTatarstan, Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Altai, Republic of Buryatia,Republic of Tyva, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Nenetsian AO, Ust’ -Orda Buryat AO, Aguinsky BuryatAO, Koryakian AO, Chukotka AO.

Average (from 80% to 120% of theaverage all-Russia level)

Saint-Petersburg city, Vologdaoblast, Moscow oblast, Lipetsk oblast.

Arkhangelsk oblast, Kostroma oblast,Yaroslavl oblast, Nizhny Novgorod oblast, Ulianovsk oblast, Perm oblast,Sverdlovsk oblast, Tomsk oblast, Amur oblast, Kaliningrad oblast, Republic ofMariy El, Republic of North Osetia - Alania.

Novgorod oblast, Oryol oblast,Belgorod oblast, Chelyabinsk oblast, Republic of Mordovia, Republic of Adygea,Yevreyskaya AO, Komi - Permyak AO.

Low (less than 80% of the averageall-Russia level)

Novosibirsk oblast, Stavropolkrai.

Leningrad oblast, Bryansk oblast,Vladimir oblast, Ivanovo oblast, Kaluga oblast, Ryazan oblast, Smolensk oblast, Tveroblast, Tula oblast, Voronezh oblast, Tambov oblast, Astrakhan oblast, Penzaoblast, Rostov oblast, Kurgan oblast, Orenburg oblast, Krasnodar krai, Altai krai, Republic ofDagestan, Republic ofKabardino-Balkaria, Republic of Khakasia.

Kirov oblast, Kursk oblast,Volgograd oblast, Saratov oblast, Chita oblast, Chuvash Republic,Karach-Cherkesian Republic, Udmurt Republic.

The second typology was constructed asanalysis of the level of budget independence of the subjects of RussianFederation. As indicators characterizing budget independence of the regions thefollowing one were selected:

  • share of federal budget receipts in regional income;
  • the share of transfers in conditionally net regionalincome;
  • share of taxes placed in the regional budget;
  • security of regional expenses by its fiscal capacity;
  • conditional balance of financial flows per person.

As a result of the research, regions weredivided into nine types: leading donors, donors, problematic donors,conditional donors, low subsidy recipients, moderate subsidy recipients,subsidy recipients, high level subsidy recipients, privileged republics (seetable).

Classification of the subjects of RussianFederation by
the level of their budgetindependence

Type ofregion


Share ofreceipts from the federal budget in regional income, %

Share oftransfers in conditionally net regional income, %

Share oftaxes entered in regional budget, %

Regionalincome security by fiscal capacity

Conditionalbalance of financial flows per person, thousand Rb

Main donors

Moscow city, Saint-Petersburg city,Yaroslavl oblast, Nizhny Novgorod oblast, Samara oblast, Sverdlovsk oblast,Krasnoyarsk krai, Khanty - Mansi AO, Yamal - Nenetsian AO.





Above 300


Vologda oblast, Murmansk oblast,Moscow oblast, Ryazan oblast, Belgorod oblast, Lipetsk oblast, Ulianovskoblast, Perm oblast, Chelyabinsk oblast, Irkutsk oblast, Republic of Komi.





250 – 300

Problematic donors

Arkhangelsk oblast, Leningradoblast, Vladimir oblast, Smolensk oblast, Tver oblast, Tula oblast, Kirovoblast, Voronezh oblast, Kursk oblast, Volgograd oblast, Saratov oblast, Rostovoblast, Orenburg oblast, Tyumen oblast, Tomsk oblast, Kaliningrad oblast,Krasnodar krai, Primorsky krai, Khabarovsk krai, Udmurt Republic.






Relative donors

Novgorod oblast, Bryansk oblast,Ivanovo oblast, Kaluga oblast, Kostroma oblast, Tambov oblast, Novosibirskoblast, Omsk oblast, Amur oblast, Chuvash Republic, Republic of Khakasia.






Recipients getting smallsubsidies

Pskov oblast, Oryol oblast,Astrakhan oblast, Penza oblast, Kurgan oblast, Chita oblast, Stavropolkrai.





0 – -50

Recipients getting moderatesubsidies

Kemerovo oblast, Sakhalin oblast,Altai krai, Republic of Mariy El, Republic of Mordovia, Republic of Buryatia,Yevreyskaya AO.





-50 –


Subsidized recipients

Kamchatka oblast, Magadan oblast,Republic of Adygea, Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, Karach-Cherkesian Republic,Republic of North Osetia - Alania, Nenetsian AO, Taymyr (Dolgano- Nenetsian)AO.





-180 –


High-income recipients

Republic of Kalmykia, Republic ofDagestan, Ingush Republic, Republic of Altai, Republic of Tyva, Komi-PermyakAO, Evenk AO, Ust’-Orda Buryat AO, Aguinsky Buryat AO, Koryakian AO, Chukotka AO .





-500- -6000

Preferred republics

Republic of Karelia, Republic ofTatarstan, Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).


0 – 3



-70 – +90

The type ‘leading donors comprises twocapitols, a number of regions of the European part of Russia, as well as oiland gas producing Khanty-Mansiysk and Yamalo-Nenetz okrugs. It is worth noting,that the majority of regions were placed among problematic and conditionaldonors, which in essence are transitional types among regions-donors andregions-recipients. There is not a single region (oblast) among high level ofsubsidy recipient. This type includes national republics and the majority ofautonomous okrugs.

* Tipologia nesotsialisticheskikh stran.(A typology of non-socialist countries) M. Nauka, 1976.

* Doklad o razvitii cheloveka za 1996 god (Human DevelopmentReport, 1996), New York, Oxford, 1996.

** See: Narodonaseleniye. Entsiklopedicheski Slovar (Population.Encyclopedic Dictionary) M.: BRE, 1994, p. 177.

*** Doklad o razvitii cheloveka za 1996 god (Human DevelopmentReport, 1996), New York, Oxford, 1996.

* Otchet po chelovecheskomu razvitiyu 1994 god (Human DevelopmentReport, 1994), New York, Oxford, 1994.

** Ibidem.

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