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High (over 150%)

Type 1. Moscow city, Saint-Petersburg city, Vologda oblast, Tulaoblast, Rostov oblast, Perm oblast, Tyumen oblast.

Type 2. Murmansk oblast, Kaluga oblast, Smolensk oblast, Yaroslavloblast, Nizhny Novgorod oblast, Lipetsk oblast, Sverdlovsk oblast, Kemerovooblast, Krasnodar krai, Republic of Komi, Republic of Tatarstan.

Type 4. Kostroma oblast, Oryol oblast, Belgorod oblast, Tambovoblast, Voronezh oblast, Samara oblast, Ulianovsk oblast, Chelyabinsk oblast,Kamchatka oblast, Krasnoyarsk krai.

over 70%

50 to 70%

below 50%

medium (110 to 150%)

Type 3. Leningrad oblast, Tver oblast, Penza oblast Irkutsk oblast,Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

Type 5. Arkhangelsk oblast, Novgorod oblast, Bryansk oblast,Moscow oblast, Amuroblast, Kaliningradoblast, Republic of Karelia, Chuvash Republic, Republic of Bashkortostan.

Type 7. Vladimir oblast, Ryazan oblast, Kursk oblast, Astrakhanoblast, Omsk oblast, Tomsk oblast, Magadan oblast, Sakhalin oblast, Stavropolkrai, Altai krai, Primorsky krai, Khabarovsk krai, Udmurt Republic,Republic of Khakasia.

over 60%

40 to 60%

below 40%

Low (below 110%)

Type 6. Kirov oblast, Saratov oblast, Volgograd oblast, Republic ofAdygea, Republic ofAltai, Republic of Buryatia.

Type 8. Pskov oblast, Republic of Mordovia, Republic ofDagestan, Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, Karach-Cherkesian Republic, Republicof Tyva.

Type 9. Ivanovo oblast, Kurgan oblast, Orenburg oblast, Novosibirskoblast, Chita oblast, Republic of Mariy El, Republic of Kalmykia,Republic of North Osetia (Alania)

As a result, the base typology wasadjusted.

For instance, although two regions of type1 (Magadan and Sakhalin oblasts) had demonstrated a rather poor ratio betweenincomes and prices, in both oblasts there were registered rather goodindicators of prosperity; therefore, these regions remained in type 1 of thetypology.

In two Far East regions (Khabarovsk kraiand Chita oblast) belonging to type 4 there were registered rather low valuesof the living standards indicators, as well as of prosperity level. Besides, inChita oblast there was observed rather low general level of incomes. Therefore,Chita oblast was transferred from type 4 to type 6. Some minor adjustments werealso made in other types.

2) The next stage of the elaboration of thetypology was to explain the respective social ane economic situations basing onobjective factors, which included:

  • Economical and geographical location;
  • Natural and climate conditions;
  • Natural resource potential;
  • Demographic potential and population composition;
  • Structure and specialization of economy;
  • Financial security;
  • Type (level) of region’s the social and economicdevelopment.

1. In the courseof the study there were singled out groups of regions favorably located in terms of economy andgeography:

a) regions of the European Center and Ural,located in the areas of large transport hubs of national importance (Moscow,St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Rostov-on-Don, Sverdlovsk);

b) maritime regions with developed portfacilities (Krasnodar and Primorsky krais, Murmansk and Kaliningrad oblasts,parts of Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan, Sakhalin oblasts);

c) regions alongside the western border ofRussia and those located on transit routes to West Europe (Smolensk, Leningradoblasts, Republic of Karelia, parts of Novgorod, Pskov, Bryansk, Belgorodoblasts).

Among the regions located in areas ofunfavorable economic andgeographical conditions there were listed the follow:

a) Regions of Far North and Far East(excluding those having access to world markets);

b) Regions located near thecontinent’s pole,i.e. in Eastern and partially in Western Siberia. These regions are remote fromthe central part of the country and world markets;

c) Peripheral regions with restrictedaccess to the national transport network (Republic of Kalmykia, Republics ofNorthern Caucasus, parts of Republics of Komi and Mariy El).

2. Most favorablenatural and climate conditions exist in the steppes and especially maritimepart of Northern Caucasus, in the central chernozem (black soil) region, MiddleVolga area, and to certain extent in the south of Ural and Western Siberia.

The least favorable conditions wereobserved in northern and to some extent Far East (excluding its southern part)regions (the general worsening of conditions was observed in the north-easterndirection). In these areas natural and climate conditions are a key factor ofhigher production costs, including high costs of maintaining the population.

3. High naturalresource potential encourages economic and social development of regions. Thedevelopment of natural resources affect the situation primarily via thestructure (specialization) of the economy, and, in particular, via theattraction of investment.

4. Demographic potential and populationcomposition have a multiple impact on both economicand social situation of regions.

Other things being equal, regions withlarger populations and higher market capacities, which have possibilities foreconomic growth, are in favorable position. These regions include both capitalswith their respective oblasts, Krasnodar krai, Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk, Rostov,Samara, Nizhny Novgorod oblasts, Republics of Tatarstan and Bashkortostan, etc.

It is also important that the size ofregion’s populationat least in part corresponded to its economic potential. In this regard, bothoverpopulated (for instance, Republics of Northern Caucasus, SouthernSiberia, and a number of northern regions with redundant labor), andunderpopulated territories (for instance, poor in chernozem regions ofCentral Russia) are most vulnerable.

The share of economically active populationin the total population characterizes the demographic burden on one employed.Other things being equal, the higher is this share, the lower are incomes and,therefore, living standards. Heavy demographic burden on economically activepopulation can be caused by:

a) higher share of children below 16 yearsold (as a rule, it occurs in national regions characterized by high birthrates and relative prevalence of large families – Republics of Northern Caucasusand Southern Siberia, Republic of Kalmykia);

b) higher share of pensioners (Novgorod,Pskov, Tver, Bryansk, Ivanovo, Yaroslavl, Oryol, Voronezh, Kursk, Tambovoblasts, which experience, especially from recently, inflow of seniorpopulation groups alongside with the migratory outflow of young people).

5. Specialization and structure of economyare among key factors determining the economicsituation of regions.

Manufacturing industries (foremost, laborintensive mechanical engineering, including defense industries, and lightindustry, in part –food industry) were most affected by the downfall of production. Fuel (first ofall, oil and natural gas) industries, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy,certain branches of chemical, petrochemical, woodworking, and pulp and paperindustries were in relatively better situation.

The more is the specific weight ofindustries having experienced relatively deep slump across Russia at large in aregion, the deeper is the expected slump in this region, and vice versa. Theratio between the actual recession and expected fall in regional productioncharacterizes the impact of non-structural factors on the dynamics ofindustrial production. In case this ratio is over 1, these factors playpositive role, if it is below 1, these factors deteriorate the industrialdynamics of regions.

Besides, in certain regionsmono-specialization and, in general, insufficient degree of economicdiversification is an additional factor of risk. A crisis of these industriesis fraught with the collapse of the whole regional economy.

Yet another aspect of the structural factoris the ratio between industry and agriculture. Agrarian, under- andmoderately-urbanized regions (Northern Caucasus and especially its westernpart), central chernozem region, southern parts of Ural and Western Siberia)are more self-sufficient in terms of foodstuffs.

As concerns industrial, highly urbanizedregions of the European Center and Ural, they are more vulnerable to theaggravation of the crisis, other things being equal. However, in case Russiaexperiences economic growth, many of these regions have a chance of revival asleaders of the national economy.

6. Financial security of regions.Other things being equal, rich regions (secure infinancial terms) have an advantage over poor (financially insecure) regionsboth in terms of alleviating indications of social and economic crises, and interms of generating new economic growth.

An indicator characterizing financialsecurity of regions is the adequacy of regional tax potential for coveringexpenditures, or the ratio between the amount of taxes collected within theregion’s territoryand budgetary expenditures. It is only natural that the tax base shrinks as aresult of slump in production, therefore, the regional financial securitydeteriorates. The majority of regions are located along the diagonal frommoderate fall in production and high financial security to profound fall inproduction and inadequate financial security. However, similarly to the basetypology, there are several regions where the setback in production does notseriously affected financial security. This phenomenon may be attributedto the fact that either in these regions there developed other spheres ofactivity, or possibly reduced their spending. On the other hand, a numberof regions demonstrates deteriorating financial security even at the backgroundof relatively mild recession. The factor behind this development is that inremote regions the expenditures for maintenance of infrastructure alongsidewith housing and heating costs increased out of proportion.

Basing on the above facts and levels ofsocial and economic development the following characteristics were additionallyincluded into the typology of regions:

Type 1. Regionsmost successful in adapting to new economic situation were those whereextracting industries predominated (fuel, energy, forestry, metallurgy). Theseregions include European North, Tyumen oblast (mostly at the expense of itsnorthern AOs), certain regions of Eastern Siberia and Far East;

Types 2, 5, and 8.Regions, which could either sufficiently improve, or still retain relativelynormal social and economic situation (old industrially developed and as a rulehighly urbanized regions of the European Center, Ural, and Middle Volga);

Type 4. Some ofthe regions of this type are capital regions in transition to thepostindustrial type, which have diversified economies, other regions manage tomaintain sufficiently high social indicators.

Type 7.Industrial-agrarian and agrarian-industrial regions, as a rule with medium orlow levels of urbanization. (central chernozem area, Russian part of NorthernCaucasus, southern parts of Ural and Western Siberia);

Types 3, 6, 9.Same industrial-agrarian regions where industries are oriented towardsproduction of agricultural machinery, or sharply decreased defense orders, andagrarian (pre-industrial, as a rule, economically underdeveloped and ratherdensely populated Republics of Northern Caucasus.

As a result, Russia’s regions were >


  • Regions of capital type with diversified economies and growingfinancial sector;
  • Export-oriented raw material or transport regions;
  • Regions, which have taken the road of rapid economic reform, as arule these heavily industrialized regions are of good financial standing;
  • Republics disposing of rich natural resources and achievingeconomic independence of the Federal Center;
  • Crisis (depressive) regions specializing in light industry andmechanical engineering, including defense production;
  • Economically underdeveloped agrarian or peripheral regionsdepending on the federal budget;
  • Remote northern and eastern regions.

The authors stress that the majority ofregions simultaneously fit into two or three types yet.

7. Typology of Russia’s regions by aggregate indicators
of and factors forming publichealth*


The study of male mortality structure haspermitted to determine the totality of factors (in terms of environment and wayof life), which most often affected indicators of public health. The presenceand objectivity of these factors permitted to start working on>

At the first stage there was carried outcluster analysis of factors and indicators of mortality and singled out groupsdemonstrating close correlation. This process is necessary to use as workingaxes of the typology only less related (orthogonal) parameters. In order totest the uniformity there were selected indicators of standardized mortalitydue to all causes, all indicators of mortality structure (deaths due todifferent causes in per cent of the total mortality), and a series of data onclimate and infrastructure of territories, nutrition, settlement, migration,way of life and environment.

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