Group 1. Economically developed countries.On the whole, the group has high GDP indicators, theGDP structure is characterized by a small share of agriculture, decreasingshare of industry and dominating services sphere.
Type 1. Leadingcountries. According to thetypology, Type 1 of Group 1 includes six countries of the Big Seven (excludingCanada): the most developed countries in terms of their economic,scientific, and technological potential, having most diversified economies, andthe largest human potential among countries belonging to Group 1. The sixcountries of Type 1 are characterized by high levels of concentration ofcapital and the great role played by their corporations in the globaleconomy. These countries also are lead in politics.
Type 2. Highlydeveloped small countries of Western Europe. Thistype includes Switzerland, Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, Scandinaviancountries, Finland. These countries do not play independent role in thepolitical control over the world, since they are characterized by narrowereconomic specialization; however, they could achieve considerable success in anumber of sectors, what is evident via high per capita indicators. Acharacteristic feature of these countries is the importance of non-productionsphere.
Subtype 2 includesmini-states of Western Europe (Luxembourg and Island). The very narrow specialization ofeconomy at the background of high per capita economic indicators is the keycharacteristic feature of these countries.
Type 3. Countriesof “settler capitalism.” This type includes Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa,Israel. The key criterion for this type is the specifics of their historicaldevelopment. All these countries did not experienced feudalism, capitalistrelations were brought by immigrants. Besides, in contradistinction to the USA,in the majority of these countries the development was of evolutionarycharacter, in conditions of political dependence on respective parent states.The development of capitalism in states with large territories was extensive.The majority of countries of this type specialized in agrarian produce and rawmaterials at the background of high level of development of productive forcesand developed domestic economies.
Group 2. Medium developed countries.
Type 1. Mediumdeveloped countries of Western Europe. These countries are Spain, Portugal, Greece, Ireland. The majorityof the countries included into this group has played the leading role in theworld in different epochs; however, persistence of social relationsbelonging to previous stages of development braked their economic development.These countries either have just taken the road of postindustrial development,or still are at the industrial stage (Ireland).
Type 2. Mediumdeveloped countries of Central and Eastern Europe.
The countries having completed or stillbeing at the stage of transformation of their economic systems, however,demonstrating many economic indicators at the levels close to the group ofmedium developed countries, are included into this group. This type includestwo subcategories: subtype 1 is comprised of countries having in some pasthistorical epoch rather strong positions in Europe and at present being amongthe most economically developed former socialist countries; subtype 2 includescountries with rather “complicated” histories, which at different times were“oppressed” provinces of different empires and at present are somewhat belowsubtype 1 in terms of the level of their economicdevelopment.
Subtype 1. CzechRepublic, Hungary, Slovenia;
Subtype 2. Poland,Slovakia.
Group 3. Developing countries. This largest group includes the least developed countries in theworld. Almost all these countries are situated in Asia, Africa, Latin America,and Oceania. These countries belong to very different types.
Type 1. Keycountries. Brazil, Mexico,China, India.
These countries have large territories,populations, and playing key role in their respective regions and sub-regions.These states possess considerable natural and raw material resources and havelargest economic potentials among developing countries. Since these countriesdiffer considerably, this type is divided into two subtypes:
Subtype 1. Leadersof Latin America
Subtype 2. Giantsof the East
Type 2. Countriesof relatively mature capitalism. This type includesthe largest number of countries and subtypes.
Subtype 1. “Settler” countries of early development of dependentcapitalism. Argentina andUruguay. Highly urbanized countries disposing of rich agricultural resourcesand early taken the road of capitalism. However, the capacity of theirrelatively small domestic markets was soon exhausted and these countriesexperienced severe structural crises. At present these states undertake tocarry out profound economic reforms.
Subtype 2. Countries of large enclave development of capitalism. Venezuela, Chili, Iraq, Iran, Algeria. The development of thesecountries is related to the massive inflow of foreign investment due to thepresence of unique deposits of mineral resources. Therefore, a small share ofthe employed generates the main portion of the social product thus providingthe largest share of state revenues and in the process of redistributiondetermines the development of all spheres of the economy.
Subtype 3.Countries of externally oriented adaptivedevelopment. Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay,Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Syria, Jordan,Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia.
Subtype 4.Small dependent plantation economies. Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Sri Lanka. Small population and resourcepotentials coupled with the failure of bourgeois-democratic movements in thesecountries resulted in the conservation of their (rather narrow) agrarianspecialization.
Subtype 5.Small countries of concession development.Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Surinam, Gabon,Botswana, Papua New Guinea. Deposits of mineral resources in these countries haveattracted large foreign investment from parent states and determined theaccelerated development of capitalism. The key factor of development of these former plantationeconomies were mining concessions, which subordinated the whole economies of thesecountries to large corporations.
Subtype 6.Small and smallest “landlord” countries. Hong Kong, Macao, Barbados, Bermudas, Bahamas, Cayman and VirginIslands, New Caledonia, Malta, Cyprus, Panama, Liberia, Singapore,Bahrain. These countries’ “free economic zones” and, in fact, no-tax regimes attracted largetransnational corporations.
Subtype 7.Small countries with financial surplus – large oil exporters.UAE, Qatar, Kuwait, Brunei, Saudi Arabia, Oman,Libya. These countries are large exporters of hydrocarbon raw materials with high per capita incomes,active balance of trade, large domestic capital investment also attract massiveforeign investment. At present, the rapid development of capitalist relationsin these countries (due to unique oil reserves) is combined with inherited andacquired backwardness.
Subtype 8.Large countries with low incomes. Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Vietnam. These countries with large populations areamong the poorest state ofthe world in terms of per capita GDP. However, their most developed provinces have alreadydeveloped markets, large national capitals. In these countries are active transnationalcorporations aimed to use the advantage of very cheap labor and future consumermarkets.
Type 3. Newindependent countries. More than 50 countries withvery low per capita incomes, very small share of manufacturing industries inGDP, and very large share of the illiterate belong to this group. According tothe typology, Type 3 includes, alongside with 42 countries the UN GeneralAssembly defined as the “least developed” in 1988, a number of post-socialistcountries (former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia).
2. The typological >
The typology applies approaches basing on acombination of quantitative and qualitative characteristics coinciding withindicators defined by V. V. Volski. All developing countries were>
Countries of medium developed capitalism. Hong Kong, Singapore, Cyprus, Mexico, Brazil, Venezuela, Argentina,Chili. These are countries taking an intermediate position between the center andperiphery of the world economy.
Oil producers – countries with high per capita incomes. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Iraq, Iran, Brunei, Libya, etc. In these countriesdomestic and foreign capital continue to coexist with pre-capitalist and obsolete economicforms.
Smallest countries and territories with high per capita incomes.Bahamas, Bermudas, Barbados, Martinique, Reunion,New Caledonia, etc.
Upper middle group. Republic of Korea,Malaysia, Syria, Algeria, Tunisia, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Ecuador, Guatemala,Peru, etc.
Lower middle group. Philippines,Thailand, Sri Lanka, Nigeria, Morocco, Egypt, Zambia, Angola, Ghana, El Salvador,Nicaragua, Papua New Guinea, etc.
Countries with low per capita incomes.India, Pakistan, Indonesia, etc.
Least developed countries. Bangladesh,Myanmar, Afghanistan, Nepal, Yemen, Niger, Chad, Somalia, Zaire, Tanzania,Madagascar, etc. These countries were defined as “least developed” by the UN General Assembly in 1988.
3. Typology of non-socialistcountries*
The study >
All indicators were divided into 7 groups:
First group – generalized indicators of social and economic development(measured in US $ according to official exchange rate):
1 — per capita national income;
2 — national income per oneable-bodied person;
3 — per capita savings.
Second group — indicators characterizing thesectoral make-up of the national economy basing on the data on the employmentof economically active population (in per cent of the total economically activepopulation):
4 — share (or specific weight) ofpopulation employed in agriculture;
5 — the share of population employedin industrial sectors (industries per se, construction, transport);
6 — the share of population employedin trade and services.
Third group — indicators of wage labor (in percent):
7 — specific weight of wage andsalary earners in the total economically active population;
8 — specific weight of wage andsalary earners in the total economically active population employed inagriculture;
9 — specific weight of wage andsalary earners in the total economically active population employed inindustry;
10 — specific weight of wage andsalary earners in the total economically active population employed in tradeand services;
Fourth group — indicators of culture, healthcare, and consumption reflecting the level of development of the humancomponent of the productive forces:
11 — life expectancy at birth(years);
12 — nutrition (calorie intake);
13 — number of literate per 1,000inhabitants;
14 — number of students per 1,000inhabitants;
15 — number of inhabitants perdoctor;
16 — number of newspaper copies per1,000 inhabitants;
17 — number of TV sets per 1,000inhabitants;
18 — number of radio sets per 1,000inhabitants.
Fifth group— indicatorsreflecting the technological and economic level of production, the developmentof material productive forces:
19 — per capita energy consumption(in terms of coal, kilograms);
20 — per capita steel consumption (inkilograms);
21 — per capita output of syntheticand man-made fiber (in kilograms);
22 — number of tractors per 1,000hectares of cultivated land;
23 — number of cars per 1,000inhabitants;
24 — length of the railroad network(kilometers per 1,000 square kilometers of the national territory);
25 — aggregate power of nuclear powerstations (in megawatt).
Sixth group— indicators to somedegree reflecting the role played by the state in the economic life, as well asthe degree of “militarization” of the national economy, i.e. the relative levelof military expenditure and relative strength of the armed forces:
26 — ratio between budgetaryexpenditures and the national income (in per cent);
27 — ratio between militaryexpenditures and the national income (in per cent);
28 — strength of armed forces per1,000,000 inhabitants.
Seventh group— social anddemographic indicators:
29 — share of able-bodied populationin the total population (in per cent);
30 — specific weight of urbanpopulation living in cities (over 100,000 residents) in the total population(in per cent);
31 — density (size) of population per1 hectare of agricultural lands.
At the first stage of the study thecountries were ranked by the level of development of their national economies;further there were singled out groups of countries with similar types ofnational economies. The study aimed to combine these two approaches andclassify national economies taking into account both type and level ofdevelopment.
Countries of the world as broken down by thelevel of their economic, social, and cultural development
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