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(NA)

1979

102.8

106.0

96.6

96.1

91.8

85.9

87.9

107.5

125.6

1980

102.9

105.9

93.7

96.6

88.6

81.3

90.9

105.5

134.6

1981

102.9

104.3

90.9

92.5

87.1

84.3

95.5

106.2

136.3

1982

109.0

109.6

91.1

94.8

89

81.8

101.3

115.9

107.6

1983

111.4

112.2

93.4

97.5

86.9

80.7

87.1

104.8

126.1

1984

113.3

105.1

99.3

99.0

86.8

81.5

83.6

106.3

125.1

1985

114.6

118.1

95.2

95.1

86.3

79.0

85.1

103.8

122.9

1986

122.4

119.8

95.4

92.3

86.4

78.7

80.4

101.6

122.9

1987

126.9

123.3

95.6

92.1

87.4

78.2

74.1

98.9

123.5

1988

123.0

120.3

95.6

95.8

90.7

79.1

79.5

98.8

117.2

1989

(NA)

(NA)

(NA)

(NA)

(NA)

(NA)

(NA)

(NA)

(NA)

1990

124.0

120.5

97.6

98.2

92.8

63.5

80.3

102.1

121.1

1991

121.2

116.5

94.7

97.2

89.3

83.4

80.4

98.9

118.4

1992

125.3

125.8

92.0

95.6

87.5

82.3

79.4

97.1

115.0

1993

125.2

119.8

93.9

96.4

89.0

82.4

80.2

99.8

113.3

1994

123.2

118.7

96.4

98.1

90.9

83.9

79.2

98.6

110.9

1995

124.4

119.0

99.3

96.1

91.4

84.6

78.5

93.2

113.5

1996

125.3

114.9

98.8

97.6

91.9

84.3

78.5

93.5

115.1

1997

124.0

114.4

99.3

101.4

90.3

83.2

80.2

93.9

113.4

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, StatisticalAbstract of the United States.

2. HFI of State Revenues BeforeIntergovernmental Transfers

Table B6 provides data on per capita staterevenues excluding transfers from the federal government as a percentage of thenational average. Differences across regions arise due to differences inpreferences and in the ability to raise revenues. With regard to the latter,there is a wide variation among states in types of revenue sources. Forexample, several states levy no personal or corporate income taxes or salestaxes. Some states levy property taxes at the state level, the local level, orboth.

The data shows that New England, theMid-Atlantic, and the Pacific regions have been consistently above the nationalaverage in revenues per capita.27 As was true for percapita expenditures, the East and West South Central regions are considerablybelow the national average. The New England and West North Centralregions have witnessed a considerable increase in revenues per capita comparedto the national average whereas the Pacific and Mountain regions have seen aconsiderable decrease.

3. HFI of State Revenues AfterIntergovernmental Transfers

In Table B7, we provide data on state percapita revenues including transfers from the federal government as a percentageof the national average. By comparing this data to that of Table B6, weare able to determine whether intergovernmental transfers have had any effecton reducing HFIs on the revenue side. A comparison with Table B6 showsthat there has been a slight equalization of revenues per capita because ofintergovernmental transfers. One striking anomaly is the Pacific region.In that region, transfers have increased revenues per capita even more abovethe national average. If we ignore the Pacific region, the equalization amongthe other regions would likely be more pronounced.

The extent of equalization of revenues canbe measured by the coefficient of variation. Tables 2 and 3 in theAppendix provide measures of the coefficient of variation of revenues acrossstates for selected years from 1970 to 1995. As is evident in the tables,the variation in revenues is reduced because of intergovernmental transfers forall years except 1975, where it is slightly higher after transfers.

The data in Tables B6 and B7 show that theNew England, Mid-Atlantic, and East and West North Central regions are netcontributors to redistribution among regions. Note that the latter twoare net contributors despite being below the national average. Alsonoteworthy is the fact that the East and West South Central regions continue tobe well below the national average despite intergovernmentaltransfers.

Table B7: State Governments Per CapitaRevenues, After Intergovernmental Transfers, as a Percentage of the UnitedStates Average

Year

New England

Mid Atlantic

E. No.
Central

W. No.
Central

So. Atlantic

E. So.
Central

W. So.
Central

Mountain

Pacific

1970

81.4

80.8

75.7

77.6

78.8

74.4

77.4

99.1

254.7

1971

95.7

92.6

85.6

89.1

93.3

88.0

87.8

112.2

155.6

1972

99.4

97.7

88.4

88.0

94.4

86.3

89.6

109.5

146.8

1973

101.1

103.4

89.7

89.5

95.8

87.2

86.3

105.3

141.5

1974

99.0

101.6

92.1

92.6

95.7

85.9

87.1

104.0

142.1

1975

95.4

96.8

89.0

93.5

95.4

86.0

87.1

107.0

149.9

1976

97.1

94.4

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