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As a result of the third reading of thedraft federal budget for 2002 there were made amendments that regulateformation of the financial reserve, investments and spending of its means aswell as management and control of the financial reserve means. It is alsoenvisaged that in case of an unfavourable market situation in 2002 financing ofa part of federal budget expenditures, a total of 68.6 billion roubles, can beput off to a later period. Introduction of such a mechanism gets the financialreserve of the Government of the Russian Federation closer to the presentlydiscussed idea of establishing a stabilization fund. Meanwhile the adoptedmechanism contains a number of drawbacks, the most serious one is that therules of forming a financial reserve (a stabilization fund) shall be adopted aslong-term provisions not as part of a budget law and be ruled by a separatefederal law or a Budget code. Moreover, the adopted wording of the rules offormation and spending of the fund’s means are inaccurate and need additional definitions andinterpretations.

Assessment of expenditures of the federalbudget. Federal budget expenditures in 2002 areplanned at the level of 17.8% of GDP. Especially expanded in shares of the GDPas compared to budget laws of previous years are social expenses (2.5 timescompared to the planned figures for 2001 and more than three times as comparedto the plan for year 2000). This increase is explained by inclusion into theexpenditures of the federal budget of a part of the social tax receipts thatare transferred to the Pension Fund, a total of 257 billion roubles (2.4% ofplanned GDP).

A certain increase of expenditures isenvisaged for public roads expenses (from 0.37% of planned GDP in the 2001budget to 0.6% of the planned GDP in the 2002 budget).

A decrease in GDP share is envisaged for theservicing of the state debts item (2.6% of planned GDP in the budget of 2002 ascompared to 3.1 of planned GDP in the budget of 2001 and the analogous level ofactual execution of the budget in the first six months of 2001, as well as 4.3%of planned GDP in the budget for 2000), also for defence and law enforcement (adecrease by 0.2 point and 0.1 points in the budget of 2002 as compared to thebudget of 2001). It should be noted that the performed financing (that is meanstransferred by the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation to receiversof budget funds) of expenditures under the last two items in the first sixmonths of 2001 exceed the level, envisaged in the draft budget for 2002 (2.9%of GDP and 1.8% of GDP for the first six months of 2001 accordingly as comparedto 2.6% GDP and 1.6% GDP in the draft budget for year 2002).

On the whole without taking the singlesocial tax into account the level of expenditures of the federal budget for2002 and its pattern did not undergo any considerable changes as compared toreference points in the budget law for year 2001.

In constant prices the expenditures side ofthe 2002 budget was increased by 41% as compared to the budget of 2001 and 64%as compared to the initial law on the budget of 2000 (38% as compared to thebudget adjusted to extra revenues). This increase compared to the budget of2001 can be traced by such important expenditure items as internationalactivities (by 67%), transport and public roads (by 113%), including publicroads (by 108%), education (by 41%), culture and arts (by 39%), stateadministration (by 20%), public health (by 24%). Increase of national defenceand law enforcement expenditures as compared to the budget for 2001 was no morethan 14%.

Table 18

Budget Laws and Execution of the FederalBudget in 1999-2002
in Shares of theGDP

1999

2000

2001

2002


Budget Law*

Executionby financing

Executionby cash

Budget Law*

Budget Lawof 12.25.00

Executionby financing

Executionby cash

Budget Law*

Executionby financing in the first six months

Executionby cash in the first six months

Budget Law*

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Administration of the state andlocal governments

0,3%

0,3%

0,3%

0,5%

0,5%

0,4%

0,4%

0,5%

0,5%

0,4%

0,5%

Judicial power

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,2%

0,2%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,2%

International activities

0,9%

1,3%

1,3%

1,1%

0,8%

0,2%

0,2%

0,3%

0,2%

0,2%

0,4%

National defence

2,3%

2,6%

2,5%

2,8%

4,1%

3,0%

2,8%

2,8%

2,9%

2,6%

2,6%

Law enforcement and state security

1,3%

1,2%

1,2%

1,6%

2,2%

1,6%

1,5%

1,7%

1,8%

1,4%

1,6%

Basic research and promotion ofscientific and technologic advance

0,3%

0,3%

0,2%

0,3%

0,3%

0,2%

0,3%

0,3%

0,3%

0,2%

0,3%

Industry, power and civilengineering

0,4%

0,4%

0,4%

0,4%

0,7%

0,5%

0,5%

0,6%

0,5%

0,4%

0,5%

Agriculture and fisheries

0,2%

0,2%

0,2%

0,2%

0,3%

0,2%

0,2%

0,3%

0,2%

0,2%

0,2%

Environmental and naturalresources controls, hydrometeorology, cartography and land-surveying

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

Transport, public roads,telecommunications and information services

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

0,4%

0,4%

0,3%

0,1%

Accidental control and eliminationof extraordinary situations and Acts of God

0,2%

0,2%

0,2%

0,2%

0,2%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

Education

0,5%

0,5%

0,5%

0,6%

0,7%

0,5%

0,5%

0,6%

0,7%

0,5%

0,7%

Table 18 (cont’d)

1999

2000

2001

2002


Budget Law*

Executionby financing

Executionby cash

Budget Law*

Budget Lawof 12.25.00

Executionby financing

Executionby cash

Budget Law*

Executionby financing in the first six months

Executionby cash in the first six months

Budget Law*

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Culture, arts and cinema

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

0,1%

Mass media

0,1%

0,0%

0,0%

0,1%

0,1%

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