The comparison of the results of the RF subjects’ typology and conclusions of the study “Payment arrears in the Russia’s economy and regions” demonstrates that ad hoc>
Thus, it is apparent that “poor” and “depressive” regions characterized by high shares of loss-making enterprises and low revenues of regional budgets may be seen as the “centers,” where originate non-monetary payments and debts, and from where payment arrears are transferred to other regions. Besides, these regions (and “shaky” regions) demonstrate higher shares of offsets in the relations between the budget and taxpayers, what, as it was shown, results in increased indebtedness of budgets and forms chains of payment arrears related to enterprises supplying budgetary organizations. In relatively “rich” regions, some payment arrears are probably of non-voluntary nature and depend on the degree of integration with other regions.
On the other hand, exactly “rich” regions (both “consumers” and “investors”) became the major centers of distribution of financial flows and, therefore, caused the decrease in payment arrears occurring in 1999 through 2001 as export revenues increased and the monetization of the economy progressed.
Besides, from our point of view, the>
Investment in Regions
The results of typologization of RF subjects not only confirm>
In the course of analysis of regional aspects of investment activity it shall be taken into account that, first, regions – “investors” will demonstrate higher indicators of amount and dynamics of investment than regions – “consumers” comparable to them in terms of other regional economic indicators.
Second, it may be assumed that in “consumer,” “shaky,” and “depressive” regions the role played by investments of state-owned companies and from budget sources will be more important than in “investor” regions, what is also due to a higher share of state property.
Third, in “poor investor” regions the share of investment of enterprises of mixed (foreign) ownership will be higher, since internal funds of these regions are insufficient for investment.
Fourth, it may be assumed that in terms of sources the investment in regions – “rich investors” will be approximately evenly distributed across internal and borrowed funds, since higher regional revenues permit both to invest at the expense of profits and to attract borrowed capital (higher monetization of such regions is an additional factor increasing the supply of financial resources).
Fifth, in fact, mainly companies from “rich investor” regions may borrow funds via the issuance of stocks, since their financial standing, investment activity, and institutional conditions under which they operate make their securities attractive to investors.
Sixth, in “rich investor” regions the investment in real estate is expected to be either evenly distributed between residential housing and production facilities construction, or be biased in favor of housing construction, while in “poor investor” regions the investments in buildings and facilities of production purposes predominate.
Seventh, the amount and structure of investment in “consumer” regions will be primarily determined by the structure and degree of deterioration of fixed assets, while in “investor” regions a considerable part of investment is allocated for creation of new capacities.
Economic Problems of Russia’s North
According to the results of typologization, 11 regions out of 19 RF subjects>
For instance, in “poor” and “depressive” regions special attention shall be paid to programs of targeted social assistance, migration of people to “southern” regions, and creation of incentives for investment (first of all, investment from outside of the region). As an example we may refer to projects “Sakhalin 1, 2, 3” (the Sakhalin oblast belongs to the type of “poor investors”), however, the economic effect of their implementation is expected to become visible somewhat later.
At the same time, “rich” regions (both “consumers” and “investors”) apparently dispose of internal resources and capacities to maintain the level of economic activity and living standards without massive additional inflow of financial resources. In case of these regions it is more feasible to pursue a policy aimed to stimulate investment activity at the expense of internal resources.
Economic and Political Problems
The distribution of RF subjects by the singled out types permits to find out the degree of social and political tension, and the regional attitudes to the federal authorities rather accurately.
The investment policy pursued in a region to a considerable degree determines the constituents’ attitude to the authorities. In regions “investors” the electorate’s attitude to the federal authorities is, in general, more loyal than in regions “consumers.” The activity of voters and the level of support of the authorities in “investing” regions is much higher than in “consuming” regions. However, it shall be noted that the highest indicators of electoral behavior, however strange it may seem at the first glance, are observed in “depressive” regions. As an example, we may refer to the Republic of Dagestan, where 81 per cent of constituents (of 84 per cent participating in the Presidential elections of year 2000) voted for V. Putin, what is the extreme value for the last elections.
The investment climate in regions depends not only on taxes and the current system of preferences for entrepreneurs. The observance and protection of ownership rights, inviolability of citizens’ personal freedoms, quality of the judicial system, absence of different “extreme” restrictions, creation of a favorable environment for entrepreneurial activities, and non-interference of regional authorities in the financial and economic operations of economic agents (except cases directly defined by the law) facilitate the decrease in investment risks and improve the investment attractiveness of the region. At the same time, all aspects mentioned above facilitates the creation of new jobs, improvement of wellbeing of regional residents, and, as a consequence, a decline in social tensions. It is observed that the authorities less interfere in businesses and there are less strikes in “investing” regions, while they are practically non-existent in “rich investor” regions.
Berglund S., Hallin B., Lindstrom U., Ricknell L. «Alternative methods of regionalization». Umea, 1979
Berry B. Growth Centers in American Urban Systems. Vol 1. Cabridge,1973
Bigelow B. Rootstand regions: A summary definition of metropolitan America. New York,1977
Bouge D., Beale C. Economic Eras of the United States. Glencoe,1961
Boyer R., Savageau D. «Places rated almanac. Your guide to finding best places to live in America». N.Y., 1989
Caldwell J.C. Noward a restament of demographic transition theory, Population and development review, 1976, v. 2, N3-4.
Coale A.J. The demographic transition. In: International Population Conference, v.1, Liege, 1973.
DeBardeleben J. «Public attitudes toward regional governance in five regions of the Russian Federation»
Dogan M. «Parties and strata in France and Italy». Glencoe, 1967
Editorial essay: Political geography – research agendas for the nineteen eighties. Political Geography Quaterly, Vol.1, ¹1, 1982
Galkin A., Kazakov A. «A typology of Russia’s regions and the case study approach». Ch.2, 1998
Gastil R. «The cultural geography of the United States of America». Seattle, 1975
Heidenreich M. «The Changing System of European Cities and Regions». (http://www.fortunecity.com/victorian/hornton/117/regionew.htm)
Johnston R.J. «Political, Electoral and Spatial Systems». Oxford, 1979
Landry A. La Revolution demographique, P.,1934.
Les regions de la Russie: guide et>
Liu Ben-Chieh «Quality of life indicators in US metropolitan areas. 1970: a comprehensive assessment». Washington, 1975
McCarty H. «The geographic basis of american economican life». New-York,1940
Morgan M. «Values in Political Geography. Processes in Physical and Human Geography». London, 1975
Nagaev S., Woergoetter A. Regional Risk Rating in Russia. Vienna, Bank Austria, 1995
Notestein F.W. Population: the long view. In: Food for the world. Chi., 1945.
Ocic C. «The Regional Problem and the Break-Up of the State: The Case of Yugoslavia». Slavik Research Center of Hokkaido University. (http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/publictn/acta/16/caslav/caslav-1.htm)
Paddison R. «The Fragmented State: The political geography of power». Oxford, 1983
Peirce N. The Megastates of America. New York, 1972
Rantala O. «The political regions of Finland». Scandinavian political studies, Vol.2, 1967
Rogers A. Regional Population Projection Models. London – New Dehli: Beverly Hills, 1985.
Rose R., Urwin D.W. «Persistance and change in western party systems since 1945». Political Studies, Vol.18, ¹3, 1970
Rural and urban partnership. (http://www.mcrit.com/SPESP/SPESP_Rural_Urban_Partnership.htm)
Russian regions: Credit Suisse First Credit Ranking, 1998
Short J.R. «Political Geography. Progress in Human Geography», Vol.7, ¹1, 1983
Smith R., Phillips M. «North America».NewYork,1942
SPSS for Windows: Professional Statistics, 6.0. - SPSS Inc., 1993.
State of the Regions Report. NIEIR. (http://18.104.22.168/regionlink/state_regions.htm)
Territorial differentiation of Slovakia. The typology of Slovak regions. (http://www.undp.org/bec/nhdr/1996/slovak/chapter10.htm)
Thomas G.S. «The rating guide to life in America’s small cities». Buffalo, 1990
Trevarta «Japanese Cities: Distribution and Morphology», 1934
White L., Foscue E. «Regional geography of Anglo – America». New York,1954
Whright A. «United States and Canada - a regional geography». Falton,1956
World Economic Outlook. IMF, 1994, May
World Population Prospects: the 1996 Revision. US Bereau of the Census International Data Base, 1997.
Zelinski W. «Cultural geography of the United States».Englewood Cliffs, 1973.
Afifi A., Eizen, S. Statisticheskiy analiz. Podkhod s ispolzovaniyem EVM (Statistical Analysis. An Approach Involving the Use of Computers). – Mir, 1982.
Agafonov N. T. O tipakh demograficheskoi obstanovki v raionakh SSSR (On types of demographic situation in USSR regions) / Materialy V syezda Geograficheskogo obschestva SSSR. L., 1970.
Aivazyan S. A., Bukhshtaber V. M., Yenyukov I. S., Meshalkin L. D. Prikladnaya statistika. Klassifikatsiya i snizheniye razmernosti (Applied statistics.>
Aivazyan S. A., Mkhitaryan V. S. Prikladnaya statistika i osnovy ekonometriki (Applied Statistics and Principles of Econometrics). – M.: YuNITI, 1998.
Akimov M. “Dorogaya moya Rus (tablitsa investitsionnoi privlekatelnosti regionov Rossii (My Dear Rus (a table of investment attractiveness of Russia’s regions).” – Profil, 1997, No. 32.
Alayev E. B. Sotsialno-ekonomicheskaya geografiya. Ponyatiyno-terminologicheskiy slovar (Social and political geography. A dictionary of concepts and terms). M. Mysl, 1983.
Alexandersen G. “Ekonomicheskaya struktura gorodov SshA (Economic structure of USA cities) M., 1959.
Analiz tendentsiy razvitiya regionov Rossii v 1991 – 1996 gg. Proyekt TACIS (kontrakt BIS 96/369/056) (An analysis of development trends in Russia’s regions in 1991 through 1996. A TACIS project (contract BIS 96/369/056), M., Ekspertny Institut, 1997.
Anderson T. Vvedeniye v mnogovariantnyi statisticheski analiz (Introduction to the multivariate statistical analysis). – M.: Fizmatgiz, 1963.
Ashby W. R. Konstruktsiya mozga (Design for a Brain). – M.: Inostrannaya literatura, 1962.
Baburin V. L., Gorlov V. N., Shuvalov V. Ye. Ekonomiko-geograficheskiye problemy razvitiya Moskovskogo regiona v usloviyakh intensifikatsii (Economic and geographical problems of development of the Moscow Oblast under conditions of intensification) – Vestnik Mosk. Un-ta. Ser. 5, geogr. 1986.
Boli A. “Severnaya Amerika (North America)” M., 1948.
Bolotin B. M., Sheinis V. L. Ekonomicheskoye razvitiye stran v tsifrakh. Opyt statisticheskogo issledovaniya 1950-88 gg. (Economic development of countries in figures. A statistical study for 1950 through 1988). M. Nauka, 1988.
Borodulina N. A. “O klassifikatsii krizisnykh territoriy (On>
Brui B. P. O razvitii demograficheskikh protsessov v RF v 1998 godu (On the development of demographic processes in the RF in 1998) / Voprosy statistiki, 1999, No. 10.
Chikava L. Demograficheskiye protsessy: nauchnyi analiz i demograficheskaya politika (Demographic processes: scientific analysis and demographic policy) / Obschestvo i ekonomika, 1999, No. 3 –4.
Demograficheski yezhegodnik Rossii 1999: statisticheski sbornik (Demographic Yearbook of Russia: a Statistical Collection). M.: Goskomstat, 2000.
Doklad of razvitii chelovecheskogo potentsiala v stranakh Evropy i SNG (A report on the development of human potential in European countries and CIS) / Region. Byuro dlya stran Evropy i SNG. M.: Prava cheloveka, 1999.