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1974

7.75

7.62

1988

12.94

3.46


1955

-16.11

4.45

1975

21.86

11.74

1989

6.85

3.35


1962

1.34

1.34

1976

17.14

8.29

1990

7.67

4.63


1963

4.24

3.87

1977

13.01

3.52

1991

13.10

4.37


1964

1.53

6.08

1978

13.86

4.76

1992

9.12

6.33


1965

2.92

8.98

1979

12.63

6.14

1993

14.48

7.03


1966

3.11

7.211

1980

12.70

7.90

1994

10.57

6.86


1967

11.81

4.93

1981

16.16

9.73

1995

10.31

7.13


1968

6.46

2.68

1982

15.28

8.32

1996

15.90

6.62


1969

-1.44

-1.24

1983

12.84

5.91

1997

13,17

5,37


1970

-0.47

6.52

1984

11.28

4.35


1971

1.16

9.26

1985

8.78

4.01


1972

5.21

4.76

1986

8.83

4.48


1973

2.26

3.46

1987

10.29

4.31


Note: State governments are considered to bethe sum of Länder(state) governments. local (gemeinden) governments and special-purposeassociations (Zweckverbande)

Source: Author's calculations using datafrom Statistishes Bundesamt (Federal Statistical Office), Fachserie 14. R3.1,1997

Table B.4(b) Vertical Imbalances of StateGovernments (Percentages)
[(Total Expenditures -Total Revenucs)/Total Expenditures]*100

Year

Baden-
Wurttemberg

Bayern

Brandenburg

Hessen

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Niedersachsen

Nordrhein-
Westfalen

Rheinland-
Pfalz

1975

12.08

10.17

15.17

14.27

15.15

13.16

1980

8.81

4.34

7.59

8.86

13.31

8.26

1985

1.32

0.29

2.43

3.71

9.01

5.08

1990

2.97

3.53

6.63

5.95

5.63

5.88

1992

4.75

3.46

20.71

4.61

12.30

6.28

4.20

5.76

1993

3.64

2.05

21.02

5.16

15.09

8.04

6.28

7.08

1994

1.67

1.43

19.68

4.95

16.63

8.38

6.83

7.33

1995

5.99

2.63

12.30

7.23

12.68

9.55

6.92

7.66

1996

4.20

5.69

10.98

4.53

13.06

5.53

5.76

7.49

1997

2.77

5.28

7.75

5.66

9.34

5.82

7.87

8.74

Year

Saarland

Sachsen

Sachsen-
Anhalt

Schieswig-Holstein

Thuringen

Berlin

Bremen

Hamburg

1975

17.83

14.42

7.68

23.65

11.51

1980

13.86

6.97

4.71

20.30

6.41

1985

19.25

6.45

1.10

14.59

5.17

1990

10.43

6.25

5.47

10.91

6.87

1992

10.05

14.84

18.96

5.84

16.99

7.49

8.46

9.71

1993

12.45

11.87

18.23

6.24

16.54

13.72

15.96

12.06

1994

-4.00

12.04

17.86

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