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These regions are characterized by theirpopulation’s highliving standards and a high investment activity. As Table 4.2 demonstrates, theshare of population with incomes below the subsistence level is the lowestamong all singled out types of regions (19.3 per cent), while the ratio betweenper capita incomes and the subsistence level and the ratio between per capitaspending and the subsistence level are maximal (about three). The share ofinvestment in fixed assets is 24.4 per cent as compared to 18.0 per cent, therates of growth of investment in fixed assets make 108.8 per cent of thenational average, the amount of foreign investment is two times more ascompared to the national average. This type comprises both the regionswith a relatively high and low proportion of the fuel sector, however, theaverage value of this indicator is rather high – 22.5 per cent. The level ofunemployment is relatively low (10.5 per cent as compared with 14.8 percent).

So, this type includes the most prosperous,as far as economic and social perspective is concerned, regions. Notably, onlytwo of them has a high fuel component in their GRP=s: that is, Republic ofTatarstan and Tyumen oblast, while the other two - Belgorod oblast and Novgorodoblast – have managedto raise local living standards and economic potential primarily by developingnew production there (mostly with participation of foreign capital). The cityof Moscow falls under this type, as its economic state is determined by itsstatus of the national capital and financial center. It is a high (or rising)investment activity at the expense of both domestic and foreign investmentwhich is their key distinctive feature, which also establishes capacity fortheir sustained economic state in the future.

Type 5. Poorinvestors

This type comprises 10 regions, as follows:Republic of Adygea, Astrakhan oblast, Kabardian-Balkarian Republic, Kostromaoblast, Leningrad oblast, Omsk oblast, Oryol oblast, Saint-Petersburg city,Sakhalin oblast, Udmurt Republic.

These regions, too, are characterized by ahigh investment activity. As Table 4.2 demonstrates, the values of indicatorscharacterizing investment activity are the highest among all types of regions:the rates of growth of investment in fixed assets make 111.5 per cent of thenational average, while the amount of foreign investment is almost three timeshigher than the national average (6.00 per cent as compared to 2.1 per cent).However, their living standards are relatively low (the average values ofindicators characterizing living standards are close to the national average).This group comprises the regions mostly with a low share of the fuel sector(except Leningrad and Sakhalin oblasts).

This type is represented by relatively poor(with a low or lowering living standards) regions where, nonetheless, activeinvestment processes are underway. Notably, economic capacity (according to ourclassification) of the majority of them is sufficiently high, which, however,does not help raise their population’s living standards. Nevertheless,the current investments allow hopes for improvement of the situation there(their transition towards Rich investors or Consumers) in the short run.The fact that St. Petersburg – the second largest city and financial center with a highlydeveloped industrial sector also falls within this type deserve a separatestudy.

Type 6. Shakyregions

This type includes 8 regions: Vladimiroblast, Vologda oblast, Krasnodar krai, Moscow oblast, Republic of Sakha(Yakutia), Tver oblast, Tomsl oblast, Chelyabinsk oblast).

These regions are characterized by anextremely unstable situation in social and economic areas: theirpopulation’s livingstandards, investment activity and economic potential change from year to year,while there have been no clear trends to improvement or deterioration of thesituation there. The average values of all characteristics are slightly belowthe national averages, with the exception of the ratio between the investmentin fixed assets and GRP (18.7 per cent as compared with 18.0 per cent). Thisgroup comprise regions with a low share of the fuel sector (except Tyumenoblast).

It is noteworthy that a considerable partof this group is represented by the regions with a sufficiently matureprocessing sector with a high share of defense enterprises in it- Vladimir,Moscow, Tomsk and Chelyabinsk oblasts. At the same time the type also comprisesseveral Subjects of RF where the largest metallurgical and mining companiesoperate successfully: in Vologda oblast- Severstal, in Republic of Sakha(Yakutia)- Alrosa, and OAO MMK- in Chelyabinsk obalst. Obviously, the economicsituation in these particular regions appear strongly dependent on changes inthe state of the noted companies.

Type 7.Depressive regions

This type comprises 9 regions: Arkhangelskoblast, Volgograd oblast, Republic of Dagestan, Kaliningrad oblast, Republic ofKalmykia, Karachaevo-Cherkessia, Saratov oblast, Khabarovsk krai, Republic ofKhakassia.

These regions are also characterized with avery unstable economic situation: investment activity and economic capacitychange from year to year there. However, the common characteristic feature ofthe group is prevalence of a steadily low (or declining) level of theirpopulation’s livingstandards. For instance, as Table 4.17 demonstrates, in this type the share ofpopulation with incomes below the subsistence level is above 40 per cent, whilethe level of unemployment is at 18.0 per cent.

Table 4.17.

Type

1

2

3

4

5

Producers consumers

22,1%

203,2%

179,7%

15,3%

98,0%

Oil producers-consumers

24,5%

198,8%

158,2%

20,1%

98,8%

Poor consumers

38,6%

146,8%

124,2%

15,8%

97,0%

Rich investors

19,3%

302,4%

299,9%

24,4%

108,8%

Poor investors

32,9%

158,9%

138,7%

21,2%

111,5%

Shaky regions

28,5%

168,5%

140,8%

18,7%

104,4%

Depressive regions

40,8%

136,5%

110,8%

19,3%

95,4%

Russian average

33,1%

169,7%

146,0%

18,0%

100,0%

Type

6

7

8

9

Producers consumers

0,9%

101,8%

12,6%

4,3%

Oil producers-consumers

1,2%

99,8%

12,6%

33,0%

Poor consumers

0,9%

100,6%

15,2%

2,5%

Rich investors

4,9%

104,4%

10,5%

22,5%

Poor investors

6,0%

100,4%

14,5%

14,7%

Shaky regions

2,5%

101,5%

12,5%

6,5%

Depressive regions

1,3%

97,1%

18,0%

13,2%

Russian average

2,1%

100,0%

14,8%

10,3%

1 – the share of population withincomes below the subsistence level

2 – the ratio between per capitaincomes and the subsistence level

3 – the ratio between per capitaspending and the subsistence level

4 – the share of investment in fixedassets in GRP

5 – relative rates of growth ininvestment in fixed assets as compared to the national average

6 – the ratio between foreigninvestment and GRP

7 – the ratio between rates ofgrowth in GRP and GDP

8 – the level of unemployment (byend-year, in per cent of the economically active population)

9 – the share of fuel industry inthe volume of the regional industrial output

The main distinctive feature of this typeof regions from the other two types of poor regions (Poor consumers and Poorinvestors is that they cannot be attributed to the both. So, these regionswere defined as depressive, as they have not opted for their path of economicdevelopment –preservation of a loosely developed economic basis or attraction ofinvestment in a hope for future growth- as yet. The geographical spread of suchregions is fairly big: from the Northern Caucasus (Dagestan, Kalmykia,Karachaevo-Cherkessia) down to Siberia and Far East (Khabarovsk krai, Republicof Khakassia), plus, for example, Kaliningrad Oblast whose economic situationspecifically depends on the uncertainty of political and economic status ofthis exclave of RF.

Table 4.17 presents average values of threecharacteristics of living standards under consideration. Figure 4.1demonstrates the geographical distribution of regions by>

An analysis of distribution of regionsacross types demonstrates the importance of other, first of all, institutionalfactors. Thus, the inadequacy of institutional transformations primarilyreflected by the persisting high share of state-owned means of production and,therefore, in the majority of cases, low effectiveness ofproduction, often accounts for the fact that the region is>2. It is noteworthy that anotherregion characterized by an extremely high share of state ownership (theMurmansk oblast) also belongs to consumers, however, deposits of mineralwealth (ores, salt) located within its territory ensure rather high livingstandards and economic potential.


Figure 4.1.

The slowpace of institutional transformations may also account for the relativelydisastrous situation of a number of regions having good economic potential. Forinstance, the massive participation of the state in the economic activities inthe Moscow and Leningrad oblasts accounts for their belonging to the types ofshaky region and poor investors respectively. On the other hand, thepursuit of regional economic policies aimed to stimulate private initiative anddevelop private property ensured that the Belgorod oblast is among richinvestors, in spite of its weak economic potential.

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