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UdmurtianRepublic

5

5

5

Kurgan oblast

2

1

2

Orenburg oblast

3

4

1

Perm oblast

3

3

1

Sverdlovskoblast

5

4

2

Chelyabinskoblast

5

3

2

Republic ofAltai

2

1

3

Altai krai

2

1

2

Kemerovo oblast

1

4

1

Novosibirskoblast

2

1

2

Omsk oblast

5

2

4

Tomsk oblast

5

3

1

Tyumen oblast

1

5

1

Republic ofBuryatia

2

4

4

Republic ofTyva

2

3

4

Republic ofKhakasia

4

3

5

Krasnoyarsk krai

1

4

4

Irkutsk oblast

3

1

4

Chita oblast

2

1

4

Republic ofSakha (Yakutia)

5

3

4

Primorsky krai

5

1

4

Khabarovsk krai

5

3

5

Amur oblast

5

1

2

Table 4.16. cont`d

Region

living standards

investment activity

economic potential

Kamchatka oblast

5

1

2

Magadan oblast

4

3

3

Sakhalin oblast

5

6

1

Kaliningrad oblast

5

1

5

Qualitative analysis of the combinedclassifying of RF regions across the three>

Type IProducers-consumers

This type comprises 9 regions: Irkutskoblast, Krasnoyarsk krai, Lipetsk oblast, Murmansk oblast, Nizhny Novgorodoblast, Rostov oblast, Samara oblast, Tula oblast, and Ulyanovskoblast.

These regions are characterized with arelatively high (or growing) level of their population’s living standards, howeverinvestment activity appears low there. As Table 4.2 demonstrates, while thevalues of indicators characterizing living standards are higher than thenational average (the share of population with incomes below the subsistencelevel is 22.1 per cent as compared to 33.1 per cent; the ratio between percapita incomes and the subsistence level is 203.2 per cent as compared to 169.7per cent; the ratio between per capita spending and the subsistence level is179.7 per cent as compared to 146.0 per cent), the average share of investmentin fixed assets in these regions makes 15.3 per cent as compared to thenational average at 18.0 per cent, the rates of growth of investment in fixedassets are below the national average, the amount of foreign investment is morethan twofold less than the national average. The common feature for all theregions is a relatively low proportion of the fuel sector (4.3 per cent ascompared to the national average at 10.3 per cent). These regions are namedproducers conventionally, since this group includes regions where economiesare dominated both by industrial production, and agriculture. The commonfeature of these regions is, primarily, a relatively low share of the fuelsector.

So, this type to a sufficient extent isrepresented by rich regions whose economic activity and well-being is not basedupon the fuel sector output. At the same time the stability of their economicstate appears loose enough, as investment processes are weak there. In otherwords, these regions survive by consuming the existing capital, not making anyinvestment for the purpose of future economic growth. Actually, this typecomprises regions whose economies’ backbone is large metallurgical enterprises (Krasnoyarsk krai,Lipetsk oblast, Murmansk oblast, Nizhny Novgorod oblast, Rostov oblast), or awidely diversified machine-engineering sector with a substantial proportion ofdefense sector (Irkutsk oblast, Nizhny Novgorod oblast, Samara oblast, Tulaoblast, and Ulyanovsk oblast).

Type 2 Oilproducers-consumers.

This group comprises 6 regions: Republic ofBashkortostan, Kemerovo Oblast, Komi Republic, Orenburg oblast, Perm oblast,Yaroslavl oblast.

These regions are also characterized with arelatively high (or growing) level of population’s living standards and a lowinvestment activity. As Table 4.2 demonstrates, in this type the share ofpopulation with incomes below the subsistence level is 24.5 per cent ascompared to the national average at 33.1 per cent; the ratio between per capitaincomes and the subsistence level is 198.8 per cent as compared to 169.7 percent; the ratio between per capita spending and the subsistence level is 158.2per cent as compared to 146.0 per cent), the rates of growth of investment infixed assets are below the national average (98.8 per cent), the amount offoreign investment is 1.2 per cent as compared to 2.1 per cent. However, theshare of the fuel sector is high there (33.0 per cent as compared with 10.3 percent). It shall be mentioned that the rates of economic growth in these regionsare below the national average (99.8 per cent).

So, to a sufficient extent this type isrepresented by reach regions whose economic activity and well-being are basedon the output of the fuel sector. Volume of investment is small there, and theregions’ economicstate appears fully dependent on price fluctuations for mineral fuel. This typecomprises regions whose economies’ backbone is oil-producing (Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic ofKomi, Orenburg oblast, Perm oblast, Yaroslavl oblast), oil processing (Republicof Bashkortostan, Republic of Komi, Orenburg oblast, Perm oblast, Yaroslavloblast) and coal (Kemerovo oblast, Republic of Komi) companies. An interesting(and partially disputable) phenomenon is the attribution to this type ofBashkortostan and Perm oblast, as in addition to the fuel sector, it is welldeveloped machine engineering that plays an important role in these tworegions.

Type 3. Poorconsumers

This is the biggest group comprising 29regions: Altai krai, Amur oblast, Bryansk oblast, Republic of Buryatia,Voronezh oblast, Republic of Altai, Ivanovo oblast, Kaluga oblast, Kamchatkaoblast, Republic of Karelia, Kirov oblast, Kurgan oblast, Kursk oblast, Magadanoblast, Republic of Mariy El, Republic of Mordovia, Novosibirsk oblast, Penzaoblast, Primorsky krai, Pskov oblast, Ryazan oblast, Sverdlovsk oblast,Republic of North Osetia, Smolensk oblast, Stavropol krai, Tambov oblast,Republic of Tyva, Chita oblast, Chuvash Republic.

These regions are characterized by a low(or declining) level of their population’s living standards and a lowinvestment activity. Thus, according to the data presented in Table 4.2, theshare of population with incomes below the subsistence level is 38.6 per centas compared to the national average at 33.1 per cent; the ratio between percapita incomes and the subsistence level is 146.8 per cent as compared to 169.7per cent; the ratio between per capita spending and the subsistence level is124.2 per cent as compared to 146.0 per cent), the share of investment in fixedassets is 15.8 per cent as compared to 18.0 per cent, the rates of growth ofinvestment in fixed assets make 97.0 per cent of the national average, theamount of foreign investment is more than twofold less than the nationalaverage (0.9 per cent as compared with 2.1 per cent)This type mostly comprisesterritories with a relatively low share of the fuel sector (2.5 per cent) Thelevel of unemployment in these regions is higher than the national average(15.2 per cent as compared with 14.8 per cent).

So, this type is represented chiefly bypoor regions lacking abundant mineral resources. The absence of a strongeconomic basis and their own resources constitutes a key factor that alsoinhibits investment processes there. In fact, this type comprises regions thatfind themselves in the most difficult economic state, while prospects forrenewal of their economies still remain extremely uncertain. These are a numberof national Republics (Republic of Buryatia, Republic of Altai, Republic ofKarelia, Republic of Mariy El, Republic of Mordovia, Republic of North Osetia,Republic of Tyva, Chuvash Republic), Siberian and Far-Eastern regions (Altaikrai, Amur oblast, Kamchatka oblast, Kurgan oblast, Magadan oblast, Novosibirskoblast, Primorsky krai, Chita oblast), agrarian regions located in the Europeanpart of RF (Bryansk oblast, Voronezh oblast, Kaluga oblast, Kursk oblast, Penzaoblast, Ryazan oblast, Smolensk oblast, Stavropol krai, Tambov oblast), andthose with a very narrow profile (Ivanovo oblast – light industry, Kirov oblast– timber andwoodworking industry). The fact that Sverdlovsk oblast – a mighty industrial center inUrals that, apart from other things, is on possession of a rich resource basearea also falls into this type deserves a special study.

Type 4Rich investors

This group comprises 5 RF regions: Belgorodoblast, Moscow city, Novgorod oblast, Republic of Tatarstan, Tyumenoblast.

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