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Movement of RF Subjects across the notedgroups of clusters allows singling out the following 6>

  1. Regions that steadily fall within the first group, i.e. with a lowinvestment activity, low volumes of domestic and foreign investment noted overthe whole period in question. The group comprises 28 regions2: Altay krai,Amur oblast**, Bryansk oblast*, Voronezh oblast**, Ivanovo oblast*, Irkutskoblast**, Kaliningrad oblast*, Kaluga oblast*, Kamchatka oblast, Karelia*,Kirov oblast*, Kurgan oblast, Mordovia**, Nizhny Novgorod oblast**, Novosibirskoblast**, Penza oblast**, Primorsky krai, Pskov Oblast, Altay Republic**,Rostov oblast**, Ryzan oblast, Samara oblast, Smolensk oblast*,**, Stavropolskykrai*, Tambov oblast**, Tula oblast**, Ulyanovsk oblast**, Chitaoblast*.
  2. Regions whose investment activity grew substantially over 1995-99:Adygea, Kostroma Oblast, Omsk Oblast, Orel Oblast, and St.Petersburg
  3. Regions with an extremely unsteady characteristics of investmentprocess from year to year. This group comprises 20 regions3: Arkhangelskoblast*, Vladimir oblast*, Vologda oblast, Kalmykia, Krasnodar krai, Magadanoblast, Moscow oblast, Murmansk oblast, Perm oblast, Republic of Sakha(Yakutia), Saratov oblast, North Ossetia, Tver oblast, Tomsk oblast, Tyva,Khabarovsk krai, Khakassia, Chelyabinsk oblast*, Chukotsky AO*, Yaroslavloblast.
  4. Regions that joined the group with a low investment activity. Thisgroup comprises 15 regions: Bashkortostan, Buryatia, Volgograd Oblast,Dagestan, Jewish AO, Carachaevo-Cherkesssia, Kemerovo oblast, Komi, Krasnoyarskkrai, Kursk oblast, Lipetsk oblast, Marij-El, Orenburg Oblast,
  5. Regions with a steadily high investment activity, chiefly thanks todomestic investment. This group comprises 7 regions: Astrakhan oblast, Belgorodoblast, Kabardino-Balkaria, Leningrad oblast, Tatarstan, Tyumen oblast,Republic of Udmurtia.
  6. Regions with a steadily high investment activity ensured both bydomestic and foreign investment> there are three such regions: city ofMoscow, Novgorod oblast, and Sakhalin oblast.

Table 3.2.2 presents mean values of the threeparameters of investment activity under consideration for>

Table 3.2.2.


The ratio of investment in capital assets toGRP

Relative growth rate in investment in capitalassets against the average nationwide level

The ratio of foreign investment toGRP

Regions with a stably lowinvestment activity, low volumes of domestic and foreign investment

15,2%

96,5%

1,0%

Regions, where a growthin investment activity is observed

16,4%

104,4%

4,2%

Regions with anextremely unsteady characteristics of investment process from year toyear

17,4%

100,5%

2,0%

Regions, whereinvestment activity declined

19,7%

96,4%

0,7%

Regions with a steadilyhigh investment activity, chiefly thanks to domestic investment

25,3%

108,7%

2,8%

Regions with a steadily highinvestment activity ensured both by domestic and foreign investment

25,0%

125,5%

14,5%

Figure 3.2.1.

3.3. >

The aforementioned economic>

  1. Ratio between the rates of growth in GRP and Russian GDP (as%);
  2. Unemployment rate (as of end year; as % of economically activepopulation);
  3. Share of the fuel sector in the volume of industrial output of aregion (as %).

Following the procedures applied with regardto the first two >

Original data.Whilst analyzing original (non-adjusted) data, it was found out that it is theclassification built using Ward Linkage and Squared Euclidean Distance thatappeared the most evenly distributed>

The comparison of the results of thisclassification related to 1997 with the>

Adjusted data.Indicators used for clusterization that characterize inter-regionaldifferentiation of economic capacity appear non-homogenous. That is why let usadjust them and built >

The comparison of the results of thisclassification related to 1997 with the>

Results of analogous calculations by annualdata for each year separately on the basis of original and adjusted data aregiven in Annex 2, provide that we applied only Ward Linkage method with squaredEuclidean Distance, because it has proved to be the best (from the formalperspective).

Classification of regions by their economiccapacity. Qualitative analysis of clusters basedupon adjusted data according to Ward Linkage (see Annex 2) shows that as far aseconomic capacity is concerned, the clusters can be attributed to severaleconomically fairly homogenous groups. We singled out such groups on the basisof comparison and ranking (across all the final clusters) of adjusted values ofthe three indicators in question. Specifically, 9 groups of clusters (regions)can be singled out, as follows:

  1. rapidly growing regions with a high share of fuel sector and a lowunemployment rate (clusters 14 and 16)
  2. rapidly growing regions with a low share of fuel (clusters 8 and9)
  3. slowly growing regions with a high share of fuel sector and a lowunemployment rate (clusters 12 and 13)
  4. slowly growing regions with a low share of fuel sector (clusters 4and 6)
  5. regions with medium growth rates, a low share of fuel sector and alow unemployment rate (clusters 1 and 7)
  6. regions with medium growth rates, a high share of fuel sector and alow unemployment rate (clusters 2 and 3)
  7. regions with medium growth rates, a low share of fuel sector and ahigh unemployment rate (cluster 5)
  8. slowly growing regions with a high share of fuel sector and ahigh unemployment rate (cluster 15)
  9. rapidly growing regions with a high share of fuel sector and ahigh unemployment rate (cluster 10 and 11)

Movement of RF Subjects across the notedgroups of regions between 1997-99 is presented in table 3.3.1

Table 3.3.1 Movement of RF regions acrossgroups of clusters resulted from the clusterization according to Ward Linkagebased upon adjusted data over 1997-99

Region

1997

1998

1999

Republic of Karelia

5

7

2

Republic ofKomi

6

6

1

Arkhangelskoblast

6

7

1

Vologda oblast

4

5

2

Murmansk oblast

7

2

2

Saint-Petersbourg city

5

5

2

Leningrad oblast

6

6

1

Novgorod oblast

4

2

2

Pskov oblast

4

4

2

Bryansk oblast

4

7

2

Vladimir oblast

5

4

2

Ivanovo oblast

4

7

2

Kaluga oblast

4

4

2

Kostroma oblast

5

4

2

Moscowcity

2

5

2

Moscow oblast

5

2

2

Oryol oblast

5

5

2

Ryazan oblast

6

4

2

Smolensk oblast

4

7

2

Tver oblast

4

5

2

Tula oblast

4

5

2

Yaroslavl oblast

6

6

1

Republic ofMariy El

2

4

2

Republic ofMordovia

5

4

2

Chuvash Republic

4

4

2

Table 3.3.1 cont`d

Region

1997

1998

1999

Kirov oblast

5

4

2

Nizhny Novgorodoblast

5

4

2

Belgorod oblast

5

5

2

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