Practical ability to choose and create/distribute media texts
(including those created personally or collectively) of different types and
genres with the aid of specialists (consultants)
Inability (or very weakly expressed ability) to choose and create/
distribute media texts; inability or reluctance to engage in
Table 8. Creativity Indicator Development Levels
Description of Creativity Indicator Development Levels:
Expressed creativity in different types of activity (perceptive, play,
esthetic, research, etc.) connected with media
(including computers and Internet)
Creativity is not strongly expressed and manifests itself only in some
types of activity connected with media
Creative media abilities are weak, fragmentary or absent at all.
Regretfully, there is a danger of narrowing down media literacy/competence to computer or Internet literacy levels (which is the case with some Russian organizations and associations). In our view, such practices ignore influential mass media (the press, TV, radio, and cinema), which is a discriminatory approach to the problem.
Thus we arrive at the conclusion that the media literacy/competence of personality is the sum total of the individual’s motives, knowledge, skills, and abilities (indicators: motivation, contact, content, perception, interpretation/appraisal, activity, and creativity) to select, use, create, critically analyze, appraise, and transfer media texts in various forms and genres and to analyze the complex processes of media flows and media functioning.
5. Media Educational Print Resources in Russia
The Moscow publishing houses have published many media literacy books for schoolchildren & teachers. Articles about media education were published in magazines “Alma Mater”, “Pedagogic”, "Cinema Art", "Specialist", "Cultural & Information Work", etc. One of the main media education source is a scientific research. The first Ph.D. dissertations devoted to the problems of media literacy emerged else in the '1960s-'1970s (O.Baranov, Y.Rabinovich, I.Levshina, S.Ivanova, S.Penzin, U.Usov, etc.). First dissertations devoted to the media education of pupils opened the way for the investigation on the media education problem in Russian universities. The most notable works on the media education theme in universities emerged in the 1980s – 1990s (S.Penzin, S.Odintsova, A.Fedorov, etc.). First works touching the problems of the new media education (including Internet Literacy) were written in the end of 1980’s - middle 1990’s (A. Sharikov, A.Fedorov, L.Zaznobina, E.Yastrebseva)
Since the mid 1960s Russian educators (O.Baranov, U.Usov, S.Penzin, A.Sharikov, A.Spitchkin, L.Zaznobina,, E.Yastrebtseva and others) have publishes dozens of programs on media & Internet education.
I can distinguish the following types of the tutorial media education programs (basic education, distance & Internet education, combined education):
- programs for the future professionals in the field of media: screen-writers, directors, camera-men, film-critics, etc. (L.Zaitseva, K.Isaeva, I.Waisfeld, I.Trutko, M.Vlasov, R.Urenev and others);
- programs for secondary schools (O.Baranov, L.Bagenova, E.Bondarenko, U.Usov, U.Rabinovich, L.Zaznobina, A.Sharikov, E.Yastrebtseva, etc.);
- programs for universities and colleges, including pedagogical institutes, the institutes of the teacher training institute (E.Gorbulina, O.Nechai, S.Penzin, G.Polichko, U.Usov, A.Spitchkin, A.Fedorov, etc.);
- programs for the complementary education of the audience in centers of the aesthetic and Internet education (sorts of “community centers”): I.Grachenkova, E.Yastrebtseva, Y.Bykhovsky, etc.
According to the types of media education's models these programs can include the history and theory of media, creative, practical, games, discussions. As to the typology of the tutorial material of programs, they can be linearly or spirally (Penzin, 1987; Sharikov, 1990; Usov, 1993; Fedorov, 2001).
My researches revealed that as media education is not yet an obligatory component of the state Russian schools program, lots of teachers (especially older generation) do not implement it. Some school teachers use media in their>
In contradiction to some other countries (for example, the USA or Canada), the school education is centralized in Russia. The Ministry of Education works out the national basic school program, the one and compulsory for all schools. The number of elective subjects is very small compared to the obligatory ones.
As I have already mentioned, the state educational curriculum does not include media literacy. Some institutions take media literacy initiations: the laboratory of media education of Russian Academy of Education (Moscow) wrote experimental educational standards on media education at schools (integrated into the curriculum), the Kurgan Teacher Training Institute uses its own programs of media education (Spitchkin, 1999). Since 2002 Taganrog State Pedagogical Institute has the Official university level specialization Media Education (official registration N 03.13.30) and media education programs’ book.
However these innovations are realized just in relatively few Russian schools and universities. That is why the development of media literacy in Russia depends on the individual efforts of teachers (relatively young as a rule), who try to integrate media education in different subject areas or conduct extra-curricular>
The Russian Ministry of Education is aware of this problem and in future promises to provide technological resources in the areas of sound, video & Internet equipment (for example with the help of Federation for Internet Education).
One of the institutions that provide assistance for the media literacy is Russian Association for Film & Media Education. Teachers and university professors who joined it write doctors’ thesis on media & Internet literacy, elaborate models of media education, curriculum materials for schools and universities, publish books (Fedorov, 1989, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2007; Baranov and Penzin, 2005; Sharikov, 1990; Spitchkin, 1999; Usov, 1993 and others), provide workshops and seminars on media education. These efforts are aimed at developing pupils’ and students’ personality – developing an appreciation and critical thinking and analysis, media creativity, etc.
Teachers that I interviewed define their approach to media & Internet literacy in this way: media education is subsidiary to basic education; media & Internet education as effective means for the development of personality; media education is a new possibility for the creative games & group forms of media work; media & Internet education is the means of active practical work with pupils.
Russian teachers report that their long-term media aims are the development of pupils’ personality, critical & aesthetical consciousness with the help of advanced media equipment, including Internet.
I think that modern Russia needs the concrete strategies of development of the media education projects. This strategy must concentrate their intentions not only on the technical media equipment of Russian schools but also on the new methodologies, of consuming digital images and information. Russian education needs a productive cooperation with the Ministry of Education, Association for Media Education, Federation for Internet Education, Educational web-sites’ & CD-ROMs’ producers. Russian education needs also international cooperation for Media Education.
Buckingham, D. (1991). Teaching about Media. In: Lusted, D. (Ed.). The Media Studies Book. London – New York: Routledge, pp.12-35.
Fedorov, A. (1989). It is Hard to be Young: Cinema & School, Moscow: Cinema-Center.
Fedorov, A. (2001). Media Education: History, Theory and Methods. Rostov: CVVR, 708 p.
Fedorov, A. (2003). Media Education and Media Literacy: Experts’ Opinions. In: MENTOR. A Media Education Curriculum for Teachers in the Mediterranean. Paris: UNESCO.
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Spitchkin, A. (1999). What is Media Education. Kurgan: Institute of Teachers Training.
Usov, U. (1993). The Basis of Screen Culture, Moscow: New School.
Yestrebsteva, E., Bykhovsky, Y. (2001). My region is the Center of the Universe: The Development of Telecommunication & Educational Activities in the Regions. Moscow: Federation for Internet Education, 240 p.