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Motives to contact media flow: genre- or subject-based, emotional, epistemological, hedonistic, psychological, ethical, intellectual, esthetic, therapeutic, etc.

2

Contact (Communication)

Frequency of contact/communication with media flow

3

Content

Knowledge of media terminology, theory, and history

4

Perception

Ability to perceive media flow (including media texts)

5

Interpretation/Appraisal

Ability to analyze critically the functioning of media flows and media in society and media texts of various genres and types, based on perception and critical thinking development levels

6

Activity

Ability to select media and to create/distribute one’s own information; self-training information skills

7

Creativity

Creative approach to different aspects of media activity

(perceptive, play, artistic, research, etc.)

Detailed descriptions of the audience’s media literacy development levels for each indicator (based on the above>

Table 2. Motivation Indicator Development Levels

Motivation Indicator Development Levels:

Description of Motivation Indicator Development Levels:

1

High

A wide range of genre- or subject-based, emotional, epistemological, hedonistic, psychological, creative, ethical, intellectual, and esthetic motives to contact media flows, including:

- media text genre and subject diversity;

- new information;

- recreation, compensation, and entertainment (moderate);

- identification and empathy;

- confirmation of one’s own competence in different spheres of life, including

information;

- search of materials for learning, scientific, and research purposes

- esthetic impressions;

- philosophic/intellectual,

- ethical or esthetic dispute/dialogue with media message authors and

critique of their views;

- learning to create one’s own media texts.

2

Medium

A range of genre- or subject-based, emotional, epistemological, hedonistic, psychological, ethical, and esthetic motives to contact media flows, including:

- information and media text genre and subject diversity;

- thrill;

- recreation and entertainment;

- identification and empathy;

- new information;

- learning ethical lessons from media texts;

- compensation;

- psychological therapy;

- esthetic impressions;

- weakly expressed or absent intellectual and creative motives to contact

media flows.

3

Low

A narrow range of genre- or subject-based, emotional, hedonistic, ethical, and psychological motives to contact media flows, including:

- entertainment information and media texts only;

- thrill;

- recreation and entertainment;

- compensation;

- psychological therapy;

- absent esthetic, intellectual, and creative motives to contact media flows.

Of course, the above motives largely depend on such factors as the environment (micro and macro), communication conditions, heredity/genetic code, education/upbringing, age, gender, etc.

Table 3. Contact Indicator Development Levels

Contact Indicator

Development Levels:

Description of Contact Indicator Development Levels:

1

High

Everyday contacts with various types of media and media texts

2

Medium

Contacts with various types of media and media texts a few times

a week

3

Low

Contacts with various types of media and media texts a few times

a month only.

This indicator is ambivalent. On the one hand, the audience’s high level of contacts with various media and media texts does not automatically mean the high level of media literacy in general (one may watch TV, videos or DVDs for hours every day but be still unable to analyze media texts). On the other hand, low-frequency contacts may mean not only the individual’s introvert character but also his high-level selectivity and reluctance to consume bad-quality (in his opinion) information.

Table 4. Content Indicator Development Levels

Content Indicator Development Levels:

Description of Content Indicator Development Levels:

1

High

Knowledge of most of the basic terms, theories, and history of mass communication and media art culture, clear understanding of mass communication processes and media effects in the social and

cultural context

2

Medium

Knowledge of some basic terms, theories and facts of history of

mass communication processes, media art culture and media effects

3

Low

Lack of knowledge (or minimum knowledge) of basic terms, theories

and facts of history of mass communication processes, media art culture and media effects.

Table 5. Perception Indicator Development Levels

Perception Indicator

Development Levels:

Description of Perception Indicator Development Levels:

1

High:

comprehensive

identification (with the

author of media text)

Identification with the author of media

text with basic components of primary and secondary identification preserved

2

Medium:

secondary identification

(with a character (actor)

of media text)

Identification with a character (actor) of an information message

or media text, i.e., the ability to empathize with a character of media text, to understand his/her mentality, motives, and

perception of certain elements of media text (details, etc.)

3

Low:

primary identification

(nave perception of media text)

Emotional and psychological connection with the environment and

story line (sequence of events) of media text, i.e., the ability to

perceive the sequence of events of a media text and nave

identification of reality with the content of any text; assimilation

of the message environment.

When analyzing perception indicator development levels, it should be noted that the majority of people remember 40 percent of what they saw and 10 percent of what they heard [Potter, 2001, p. 24], and that the perception of information is both an active and social process [Buckingham, 1991, p. 22].

The conclusion that follows is that there are many factors contributing to the success of pop culture media texts: reliance on folklore and mythology; permanency of metaphors; consistent embodiment of the most sustained story lines; synthesis of the natural and supernatural; addressing the emotional, not the rational, through identification (imaginary transformation into characters and merger with the aura of a work); protagonists’ magic power; standardization (replication, unification, and adaptation) of ideas, situations, characters, etc.; motley; serialization; compensation (illusion of dreams coming true); happy end; rhythmic organization of movies, TV programs or video clips where the audience is affected not only by the content of images but also their sequence; intuitive guessing at the audience’s subconscious strivings; etc.

Table 6. Interpretation/Appraisal Indicator Development Levels

Interpretation/Appraisal

Indicator Development

Levels:

Description of Interpretation/Appraisal Indicator Development

Levels:

1

High

Ability to analyze critically the functioning of media flows and

media in society given various factors, based on highly developed critical

thinking; analysis of media texts, based on the perceptive ability

close to comprehensive identification; ability to analyze and synthesize

the spatial and temporal form of a text; comprehension and interpretation

implying comparison, abstraction, induction, deduction, synthesis, and

critical appraisal of the author’s views in the historical and cultural

context of his work (expressing reasonable agreement or disagreement

with the author, critical assessment of the ethical, emotional, esthetic,

and social importance of a message, ability to correlate emotional

perception with conceptual judgment, extend this judgment to other

genres and types of media texts, connect the message with

one’s own and other people’s experience, etc.); this reveals the critical

autonomy of a person; his/her critical analysis of the message is based

on the high-level content, motivation, and perception indicators.

2

Medium

Ability to analyze critically the functioning of media flows and

media in society given some most explicit factors, based on medium-level critical thinking; ability to characterize message characters’ behavior and state of mind, based on fragmentary knowledge; ability to explain the logical sequence of events in a text and describe its components; absence of interpretation of the author’s views (or their primitive interpretation; in general, critical analysis is based on the medium-level content, motivation, and perception indicators.

3

Low

Inability to analyze critically the functioning of media flows and

media in society and to think critically; unstable and confused judgments; low-level insight; susceptibility to external influences; absence (or primitiveness) of interpretation of authors’ or characters’ views; low-level tolerance for multivalent and complex media texts; ability to rehash a story line; generally, analysis is based on the medium-level content, motivation, and perception indicators.

Table 7. Activity Indicator Development Levels

Activity

Indicator Development

Levels:

Description of Activity Indicator Development Levels:

1

High

Practical ability to choose independently and create/distribute media texts (including those created personally or collectively) of different

types and genres; active media self-training ability

2

Medium

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