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Our idea is that predisposition to using drugs arises after its trial use. In other words, we suppose that it is not important why someone tasted drugs, it is much more important why some people refuse to use drugs further but other people do not.

We have discovered that striving to drugs occurs when generalized dissatisfaction decreases. Generalized dissatisfaction is a background characteristic of one's life.

Generalized dissatisfaction forms as a result of the permanent frustration of one’s significant needs. The actual content of needs is not realized enough or not realized well enough, dissatisfaction generalizes and becomes the background of one’s life. If, because of using drugs, an individual experiences decrease in generalized dissatisfaction, then he begins to think about drugs as of means for expanding his abilities.

A retrospective analysis of family stories of adolescent drug addicts indicates, that the family is the main source of generalized dissatisfaction.

Special attention is devoted to the evolution of the family with drug addicts.

Three stages of evolution of the family with drug addicts are pointed out.

The stage when the family does not realize that the adolescent uses drugs is called the stage of latent forming of drug addiction. At this stage the existing family crisis is depressed and forced out from consciousness of the family members. Functioning of the defense mechanisms both at individual (forcing out, identification) and family (family myths) levels leads up to the situation when evident indications of family infelicity and adolescent drug addiction are not noticed by parents. At the stage of latent forming of drug addiction, adolescents use drugs as a means of escaping from family conflicts and other psychotraumatical family related factors.

The main family related factor that increase the risk of using drugs by adolescents and its progress is dysfunction of family structures, disharmony of family education and individual peculiarity of parents. If the family can be described as destructive, tending to divorce, with lost members or too rigid, then the risk of using drugs by adolescents is increased. It is shown that starting using drugs by adolescents from such families is an attempt of adaptation to conditions of life. On this stage adolescent drug addiction increases adaptation to the microsocial environment out of the family. Admission of using drugs by adolescent marks a transition to the stage of evident drug addiction. This stage is characterized by deep changes both at personal and individual levels. At the family level a special type of interaction is formed, which is described as codependence.

The refuse to use drugs and start of treatment means family transition to the stage of rehabilitation and remission. Materials of clinical observations show that remission of drug users is longer, if the family is included in the rehabilitation process.

It is shown that Admission of using drugs by adolescents is a point of bifurcation (I. Prigozhin) in the family system development. Passing this point is of great importance, as it marks the beginning of a special ‘drug-addicted’ kind of family evolution or further crisis development.

In this research, the priority of family in the dynamic of drug addiction is proved. The results of the researches on codependence of sibs and its influence on drug addiction progress are given.

The special unit is devoted to the analysis of peculiarities of forming co-dependence of drug users marriage partners.

The perspectives of creating prophylactic programs, based on developing self-sufficient kinds of activity not associated with addicted behavior, are discussed.

In this paper, the following statement is consequentially proved. Relations between family, teenager groups and macrosocial environment can be described as following: the reasons for using drugs are concentrated in families, teenager groups provide different ways of using drugs, macrosocial environment creates non specific conditions of using drugs.

Psychological basis of prophylactic of drug addiction in families




Chapter 1. Drug addiction as a phenomenon


1. Aspects of analysis of drug addiction as a phenomenon


2. Personal and psychological factors of beginning using drugs


3. The subculture of drug addicted as a factor of beginning using drugs


4. Psychological portrait of drug addicted in the period of growning-up


Chapter 2. Problems of families with children inclined to use drugs


1. Family reasons of using drugs


2. Dynamics of family relations at different stages of child’s drug addiction


2.1. Parents


2.2.Sibs and siblings


2.3. Marriage partners


2.4. Family with lost child


Chapter 3. Forms and methods of prophylactic work with families


Chapter 4. The basis of prophylactic work


1. Algorithm of drug addiction prophylactic in families


2. Psychologist prophylactic work with families


3. Diagnostic of psychocorrectional work effectiveness


4. Tasks of psychologist in structure of prophylactic activity in state and public organizations






The list of dissertation papers on devoted to the drug addiction problem that were done on Psychological Department of Samara State University


Supplement 1. Aphorisms by drug addicted


Supplement 2. Irrational convictions that are typical for drug addicted


Supplement 3. Structural interview with parents of drug addicted.


Supplement 4. Carte of evaluation (for social workers)


Supplement 5. Carte of evaluation (for social pedagogues)


Supplement 6. Carte of evaluation (for psychologists)


Supplement 7. Common conclusions.




The authors:

Lisetzky K. S., Ph. D., associate professor, Dean of Psychological Department, the Samara State University – preface, chapters 1, 2, 4, conclusion, supplements; editor

Berezin S. V., Ph. D., associate professor of the Chair of Psychology, the Samara State University – chapter 1, 2, 3, 4; editor

Shapatina O. V., - professor of the Chair of Psychology, the Samara State University – chapter 2

Zinchenko O. P. – Assistant of the Chair of Psychology, the Samara State University – chapter 2

Samykina N. Yu. – Assistant of the Chair of Psychology, the Samara State University – chapter 4; supplements 3,4,5,6,7

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