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Глава третья





Большинство практикующих семейную терапию впервые годы использовали некоторое сочетание группового терапевти­ческого подхода и коммуникативноймодели, произошедшей из проекта Бейтсона по шизофрении. В этой главе мыисследуем эти две модели и рассмотрим, как они модифицированы под особую задачуработы с проблемными семьями. Мы завершим разделом, посвященным базовымтехникам семейной терапии, увидим, как они применяются, начиная с первоготелефонного контакта, продолжая различными стадиями лечения, закончивзавершением.

Те из нас, кто практиковал семейную терапиюв 1960-х, час­тоосуществлял следующий неловкий ритуал встречи. Семья, со­вершенно обеспокоенная, гуськомнеуверенно входила на свою первую терапевтическую сессию, терапевт, предельноприветли-


Майкл Николе, Ричард Шварц

вый, садился на корточки перед одним измаленьких детей: «При­вет! Как тебя зовут» Потом, нередко: «Ты знаешь, почему выздесь», не замечая между тем родителей. Наиболее распростра­ненные ответы на этот вопрос: «Мамасказала, мы идем к докто­ру» —дрожащим голосом, или смущенное: «Папа сказал, что мы идем... гулять». Потомтерапевт, не стараясь казаться пренебре­жительным, поворачивался к родителями говорил: «Наверное, вы объяснили Джонни, почему вы здесь».

Этот слабый фарс устраивался по той причине,что, пока те­рапевты нестали понимать, как структурируются семьи, боль­шинство из них, работая с семьей какс группой, полагали, что самый юный ее член наиболее уязвим и, следовательно,ему тре­буется помощь«специалиста», чтобы высказаться, — как будто родители вовсе не главные в семье и будто все членысемьи рав­ны впозициях.

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