Some studies dealt with dynamic characteristics of the impact of certain parties in regions. Specifically, R. Rose and D.W. Irwin39 research into temporary changes in territorial differences in the geography of parties’ influence in a number of Western European countries (Italy, Germany, DK, Netherlands, Finland). The authors note that the decline in the role of traditions, dilution of the features of regionalism in the population’s political conscience due to the development of urbanization, migration, raise in educational level, development of transport and mass media lead to the alleviation of historical and political traditions and, as a result, to a softening of territorial contrasts of different parties’ influences. In the frame of the work, the authors have computed coefficient of votes variations for different parties in the noted countries, along with the cumulating index. Notably, the both indicators tended to decrease practically in all the countries.
The studying of a stability of parties’ influence and the regional specifics of their dynamics appear an important issue in the course of the disposition of political forces. Thus, while evaluating the zones of influence of different political forces in his country, a Finnish researcher 40singled out the following types of regions for each party:
The regions in which the party has enjoyed for rather a long period the support of an absolute or relative majority of voters. Such regions show the emergence of a specific political climate, while the dominating party holds command positions in all the areas of public life.
The regions in which the party steadily gets a greater support than nationwide on average.
The regions where the party gets more votes or the same number of them compared with the average index nationwide.
The regions of the above three types together form the main zone of the party’s influence.
4) The typology of regions for the formation of a regional policy.
The most important objective of applied technologies of regions is the formation of such a regional policy that is based upon the objective politico-economic situation rather than political adventurism. For this purpose, experts in different countries conduct>
The typology of the EU regions is provided in the papers by D.Yull “Main characteristics of regional policy. The European experience and K. Toepel “An organizational structure of regional policies in EU”41 (see Annex 1).
The typology employs 8 indices of 4 groups: general- 2 out of 6, labor market characteristics- 1 out of 7, economic- 4 out of 18, structural economic- 1 out of 3.
The authors note that the main objective of the European regional policy is the intensification of economic and social integration. Accordingly, one should develop mechanisms of a regional>
The experience of implementation of a regional policy in EU is also interesting from the perspective of the EU regional policy at the overall level is carried out in parallel with the implementation of regional policies by the countries- members of EU, while the approaches and main tasks of the conduct of the regional policies differ from country to country.
As concerns the so-called “integrated” countries of EU (Greece, Ireland, Portugal, and Spain), their distinguishing specifics is the implementation of a regional policy against the background of a weak development of their national economies compared with other EU members. That creates a contradiction between the objective of national development and the liquidation of the uneven development of single regions. That can be solved by paying a priority attention to the problems of the national economic development, while the problems of regional development are solved to a far less extent.
While comparing the situation in the noted four countries, and Germany and Italy, one can note great differences in the level of single regions’ development. The constitutions of Germany and Italy pay a great attention to the principles of fair development. That is why the problems of regional development are in the focus of a serious attention. Proceeding from that, the priority task of a regional policy is the ensuring of the possibility for the structurally weak regions to participate equally in the country’s economic development by diminishing the influence of negative factors related to the position of the noted regions. The regional policies are also aimed at maintenance of economic growth and ensuring the employment of the local population, with an emphasis put on the intensification of economic growth in the structurally weak regions through creating long-term and competitive job opportunities. That should facilitate the implementation of structural transformations and improve the situation on the local labor market.
The Scandinavian countries traditionally pay a great attention to the concept of equity – the maintenance of a balanced development of regions throughout the country- in combination with the need in solving serious problems of the remote Northern territories.
The French regional policy follows two purposes: first, to ensure equal possibilities throughout the country and to create conditions for an equal “access au savoir”; and, secondly, to ensure a balanced national development. That is why the regional policy there is focused on diminishing unequal living standards related to the regions’ geographic locations and on alleviation of its demographic and economic effects, as well as on improvement the situation with employment. In contrast to such wide objectives, in the nature of the regional policy in UK is more specific. The Government assume that the continuation of the current regional policy is a social issue aimed at a long-term reduction in the imbalances between regions in terms of the employment of the population.
Hence, the European experience in terms of the selection of regions for the pursuance of a certain type of regional policy provides an example of the>
Whereas the EU has accumulated a considerable experience in pursuing the regional policy, their methodology of selection of regions to allocate support to them may also be used by other countries, including Russia. Nonetheless, while implanting the EU experience in RF, one should take into account the country’s specifics.
With the breakup of the socialist camp and as a result of the transformation of the economic system, the regional policy has become an important issue in the Central and eastern European countries (CEE)42. The change of the former system, the transition to open economies, the growth in the number of foreign economic partners are often accompanied by a decline of the general output and shifts in the production area. It is these processes that form a backdrop for the period of disarray in the zone outspread of economic activities.
Each country of the CEE has elaborated a certain procedure for the identification of a region in need of support or of the identification of the volume of funding allocated to the region.
The typology43 for identification of regions in need of support has been contained in the Slovenian law since 1993 (see Annex 1). In compliance with the law, there are 4 categories of regional development zones.
They were singled out on the basis of 3 indicators: living standards- 1 out of 10, labor market characteristics- 1 out of 7, and economic- 1 out of 18.
Between 1996 to 1998 Hungary introduced a more sophisticated system of identification of regions that absorbed the experience and practices of EU. The country has completed its transition to the evaluation of counties and statistical territorial units along with their attribution to one of the four categories: poorly developed zones, industrial zones experiencing a decline, agrarian zones, and zones with a high unemployment level. Proceeding from these criteria, the government annually evaluates the regions, taking into account the requirement that stipulates that the regions in need of support should not exceed one-third of the country’s overall population.
As long as the other CEE countries are concerned, the process of identification of regions is less perfect. In the Czech Republic, the region is defined as “undergoing structural changes” (industrial regions with the prevalence of traditional industries and a high level of unemployment) or as “economically weak region) (the regions with lower living standards, chiefly agrarian areas). Similar to the Hungarian practices, the lists of the regions in need of support are subject to annual revision, which is related to the general dynamism of changes in the CEE countries. The analogous approach is practiced by Polish authorities to deal with the evaluation of unemployment problems and the problem of identification of the regions to pursue a special policy aimed at the development of labor market there.
Some researchers from the CEE countries have also attempted an additional evaluation of which regions succeeded in the most painful transition from the planned economy to market.
Within the whole region of CEE, the old industrial centers tend to lose, if at the same time they are not commercial centers, and also due to their geographic location. The “eastern periphery” looses more often, while its is main commercial and financial centers and the regions located along the CEE countries’ Western borders that benefited at most. According to Grzhymek (1995), the nucleus of development in CEE area spreads from the North to the South: from Gdynya through Poznan, Vrotzlav, Prague, Brno, and Bratislava towards Budapest. It is the gravity of the German and Austrian markets and sales markets that is important, while FDI has a trend to concentrate along this geographic axis
The research into the problem of unemployment in 49 Polish counties by Grime44 and the others shows another picture. The authors note that contrast to some other regional economic indicators, the unemployment levels across the counties do not demonstrate the division of the country into East and West. The authors also attempt to explain different rates of the changes in regional unemployment levels between 1990 to 1993. The basis of the method is the computation by the shift-proportion method: having the sectoral picture. Of unemployment of every region in 1990 and changes in unemployment in terms of sectors between 1990 to 1993 in the country as a whole, they calculate a hypothetical unemployment in 1993, had every region experienced, sector by sector the same proportional decline in employment as Poland on the whole. The totality of thus predicted regional unemployment is fairly similar to the actual index of 1993, but its performance is poor as long as the purpose of calculating regional unemployment levels in 1993 is concerned. The range of the error (as percent of the level of regional unemployment) accounts for 40%. Furthermore, the mutability of the actual level of regional unemployment is far in excess over the foretold values. Obviously, in addition to economic structure (at every tier, the structure is measured at the level of aggregation employed in this evaluation) it is other unaccounted factors that have a strong impact on concrete regional results.
In Japan, the main directions of the regional policy are: deconcentration, development of the territories located outside the Pacific Belt, weakening of the “gravity” to the seashore, development of inner regions. At the same time, an important device for the pursuance of the regional policy in the country became the creation of technopolises. For the first time the program of their creation was formulated by the Ministry for Foreign Trade and Industry of Japan in 1980 under the name of “The vision into the ‘80s”. The concept of selection of territories for creating technololises there was of a dual nature. One the one hand, that was a lever to pursue the regional policy (the territories should meet its principles, while on the other hand its framework dictated strict conditions to territories. To select the territories pretending for the creation of a technololis, the special criteria were elaborated:
Closeness (not more than within 30 min. by car) to the “mother’ city with the population of over 200, 000 that would provide communal servicing;
Closeness to an airport (ideally to an international airport) or to the Shinkansen train;
A balanced set of industrial zones, research institutions and living blocks;
An improved informational network;
Favorable living conditions that would encourage research efforts and thinking;
Planning with the participation of all the three parties concerned: businesses, universities, and local authorities45.
In the meantime, there are 19 technopolises in the country, of which the majority is located beyond the Pacific Belt (Kozu, Shikoku islands, the North-West part of Honshu, on the shore of the Inner Japanese Sea, and another one- in Hokkaido.
The>46 (see Annex 1) that developed a report on the situation in 55 regions in the country (a more detailed division that the one into states). The research provided a typology of the country’s regions based upon the criteria of the population real incomes, structure of the economy and employment, unemployment level. In addition, the experts of NEIR evaluated dynamics of the noted indices for the period between 1986 through 1996, the impact of the Asian crisis on the unemployment and population’s income levels in the regions. The research formed the basis for forecasts of the change in GRP indices per capita and unemployment level until 2004 as well as allowed formulation of main proposals on directions of the regional policy for the forthcoming years.
The>47 of the Center for Geopolitical Studies of the Institute of geography under the Russian Academy of Sciences (see Annex 1).
The author employs 48 indicators of living standards, population’s health, healthcare and the state of the environment, education and social conditions for education. The>
The>48 in the frame of TACIS program (see Annex 1)
The main purpose of the typology is the identification of crisis territories, and the typology employs 3 indicators: living standards- 1 out of 10, labor market characteristics- 1 out of 7, economic- 1 out of 18.
The purpose of the aforementioned>
5) Typology of regions for the formation of a budget policy
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