The major similar feature of such published ratings of investment attractiveness of countries became the calculation methodology. The values of the indicators are estimated by experts or by the means of calculations and analysis. They are measured using a 10-score scale and weighed according to the importance of certain indicator and its contribution to the final score. However, the evaluation of investment attractiveness may be provided not only for different countries - in large federal states, with their significant regional differentiation of socio-economic indicators, it is expedient to evaluate their single Subjects’ investment attractiveness.
In Russia, the respective studies were conducted both by domestic (for instance, in Russia it is the Institute of Urban Economy that are experts in this area) and foreign institutions (for instance, le Center Francais du Commerce Exterieur25). It is the ranking of regions that is the most popular method employed in such studies.
There were numerous researches undertaken in this respect26. They all were based upon different methods and approaches, though some studies bore a lot of similarity. Sometimes the evaluation of regions’ investment attractiveness as carried out by a limited set of indicators or even a sole one, or, on the contrary, by a mechanical aggregation of dozens and even hundreds of indices that characterizes the region. It was the evaluations of the investment attractiveness of Russian regions that became the most complete and comprehensive studies that integrated both the domestic and foreign experiences.
The annual investment ratings of Russian regions published by “Expert”27 magazine are the result of such evaluations. They are made according to the methodology elaborated by G. Marchenko and O. Machul’skaya (see Annex 1).
The methodology implies the employment of 21 main indicators of 9 groups: general-1 out of 6, demographic- 1out of 7, social-1 out of 7,living standards-1 out of 10, the labor market characteristics- 1 out of 7, economic- 2 out of 18, financial- 5 out of 18, transport and communication- 3 out of 5, innovation potential- 6 out of 6,- while the final typology employs an expert approach.
Proceeding from the aforementioned studies into investment climate in Russian regions, one can make the following conclusions:
The evaluation of investment potential and risks indicators reflected a high differentiation between the regions’ investment conditions;
It is the cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg, with their maximal potential and minimal risks that are undisputed leaders in investors’ eyes;
The “Top Ten” comprises almost all the regions- donors to the federal budget;
The Autonomous Okrugs and Oblasts, and poorly developed Republics still are at the bottom of the list;
There is a significant rise in the ranking of export-oriented regions abundant with natural resources;
On the basis of the conducted studies, another typology has been built. The comparison between the estimates of the regions’ investment climate with an actual investment activity there allowed identification of the regions that are characterized with an insufficient and excessive investors’ attention (“underinvested” and “overinvested” regions).
The output of the>
for investors selecting the territories with the best conditions for investment;
for experts conducting a more intensive evaluation of concrete risks, capacity and investment legislation on the basis of single components of the comprehensive evaluation ( for instance, for the purpose of evaluation of the investment climate in the regions from the perspective of development of single sectors according to real investors’ interests);
for the comparative evaluation of regions of other countries, primarily of those with a significant cross-regional differentiation in terms of natural and socio-economic conditions (for example, the USA, Canada, Australia, and Brazil.
The typology of regions by investment climate in the latter is provided in a research paper by Mr. I. Royzman28, Head of the Sector under the Council for Placement of Productive Forces and Economic Cooperation (see Annex 1).
The typology employs 4 indicators of 3 groups: general- 1 out of 6, economic- 2 out of 18, financial- 1 out of 18. Considering the volume of the employed indicators, one can see that the present methodology appears less complex than the previous one, however, it suggests an expert approach for the final typology, an its output can be used for the same purposes as the>
The typology “The entrepreneurial climate in Russian regions” was elaborated by the Expert Institute of the Russian Council of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs and the laboratory for regional analysis and political geography of the Department of geography of the Moscow State University29 (see Annex 1)
The typology employs 22 indicators of 8 groups: general-1 out of 6, demographic-2 out of 7, living standards- 3 out of 10, the labor market characteristics- 1 out of 7, economic- 6 out of 18, financial- 7 out of 18, transport and communication- 1 out of 5, political- 1 out of 4. The expert approach was applied in the course of selection of indicators, their building, and interpretation of results.
In addition to the TACIS program, the research suggests one of comprehensive typologies of RF Subjects, with a clearly formulated objective - the evaluation of entrepreneurial climate,- though the authors understand that their work is “just an example of implementation” of the ranking of Russian regions by the level of attractiveness of their entrepreneurial climate “under a clearly incomplete list of factors taken into account”. The specifics of the paper is a need in a systematic revision of both the indicators themselves and their weights. The authors assume that such a revision should take place once in 4-5 years, and that is true for any periods, including those with unforeseen circumstances.
The major value of the research is its universal application for solving any tasks, for each of the noted factors by itself represents a whole typology. For instance, the block of financial indicators can be used to evaluate: the level of backwages, balance of export and import (foreign trade), sufficiency of budget expenditure with the region’s own tax capacity, the proportion of unprofitable enterprises; the block of social indicators- to evaluate the population’s living standards; the block of political indicators - to evaluate political preferences of the local electorate, stability of regional elites and trends of development of political situation in the regions.
As an example of the use of the blocks of economic, social and political indicators for the purpose of building a typology one can refer to the research paper “Politico-geographical evaluation of the factors influencing the conduct of regional electoral campaigns in RF”30 by Petrov V.V. The paper presents results of an evaluation of electoral campaigns taking into account their territorial specifics. The specifics of the research conducted by the author is that in addition to the electoral factor, it is suggested to consider the others- legal, economic, political, social, and socio-cultural ones. The factors that influence on the electoral process formed the basis for building a comprehensive typology of the RF Subjects.
Given its direct designation- that is, the building of an efficient electoral campaign (for each Subject, a certain model of electoral campaign as selected as an optimal model), the typology can also be used for other purposes.
Let us consider the most contrasting types as examples. For the first type, it is a market model of electoral campaign that will be most efficient, for the majority of the respective Subjects possesses a serious financial basis, especially cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Tymen, Leningrad Oblasts. As concerns the fifth type, on the contrary, it is an administrative and command model of electoral campaign that is most suitable. The fifth type comprises typically depressive regions, that is why the investing of material resources in an election campaign cannot bring about any benefits- both material and moral.
According to the output of the conducted evaluation, the author has identified the specifics of the carrying out of different electoral procedures in each of the types of RF Subjects. The familiarization with a real practice of EC technologists shows that the majority of them pay an insufficient attention to the evaluation of the socio-economic situation form the perspective of social and economic geography, while any EC, anyway, deals with territories of different tiers. Hence, it appears senseless to underestimate the differentiation between the phenomena of life that primarily become objects of attention on the part of all the participants in the electoral process.
2) Typologies of regions for identification of production dynamics and specifics.
This paragraph presents 2 narrowly specialized typologies, Given that the first one employs both economic indicators-factors and a political indicator-factor specifying them, the second typology employs only economic indicators-factors.
The typology of production dynamics in Russian regions was elaborated by the Institute of Economy under the Russian Academy of Sciences31 (see Annex 1).
The typology employs only 4 indicators of 3 groups: general- 2 out of 6, structural economic - 1 out of 3, political- 1 out of 4. The expert approach was used to take into account the exercising of federal functions by the regions.
The results and the methodology of the conducted research can be used in the future:
for developing the government policy programs in the area of regional industrial development;
for the purpose of regional policy, particularly in the area of singling out regional priorities for the state support.
The typology of Russian regions by the indices of specialization of their economies conducted in the framework of a Russian-Canadian joint research into the problems of regionalism in Russia provided by A. Galkin and A. Kazakov32 (see Annex 1).
As criteria of regions’ economic profile the authors used both quantitative indicators (structure of a regional economy, export volume, its share in the overall Russia’s exports, etc.) and some quantitative characteristics to describe socio-economic phenomena characteristic of regions of different types. The socio-economic processes in different types of regions emerge in different directions. The regional economy’s profile is an important characteristics that determines feasibility of the region’s adjustment to the changing economic conditions and prospects of its further development. One should note an excessive simplicity of the conducted typology, a small..... and the absence of hierarchy of the types therein, which do not reflect a great differentiation between economic conditions in the territory of the country.
3) The typology of regions for the purpose of evaluation of their political orientation.
The typologies provided below may not directly characterize socio-economic situation, however, they have a practical significance as its indicators.
The typology of the RF Subjects by the level of changes of Heads of executive power there is presented in the reference book “The elections of the Heads of executive power in the Subjects of the Russian Federation, 1995-1997. The electoral statistics.33” (see Annex 1).
This typology employs a sole indicator - that is, the respective election outcome and singles out three groups of regions.
Interestingly, this main typology is complemented with another one also provided in the monograph. The latter typology is built on two indicators - the outcome of the elections of the Heads of executive power in the RF Subjects and the election of the President on July 3, 1996. The latter indicator appeared as an index of the population’s political orientation.
The methodology employed for the conduct of these>
The typology “political orientation of the population in Russia’s regions” was completed in the frame of TACIS project34 on the basis of an evaluation of political preferences of Russia’s population according to the outcome of the Parliamentary elections in 1995 and the first round of the Presidential elections in 1996 (see Annex 1).
Such typologies have a practical importance for the conduct of next elections in the given region, while their theoretical significance lies in their capacity of being a method of monitoring of the emergence of a political situation in the country. The research output can be also used for evaluation of the disposition of political forces in the country, steadiness of electoral preferences in certain regions, the impact of political elites on the voters “expressing their will”, for the development of a forecast of the future electoral behavior in the regions.
It is the research into political situation that has formed an important direction in the>
The>35 (UK) (see Annex 1).
The greatest number of papers of this direction deal with the study into the impact of political parties in the regions. The studies focus on the dependence between the elections outcome at the elections of different levels and the social structure of the population and the structure of local economies36. According to the data of a group of Swedish experts37 that studied regional specifics of correlations between the influence of the Swedish social-democrat party, communists and some socio-economic indicators that reflect main features of the social structure of the population of the Swedish lens ( the administrative-territorial units in the country), the respective indicators provided for 74% of votes for these parties at all the elections over the period concerned. A comprehensive characteristics of the territorial and political structure of France and Italy was highlighted by M. Dogan38 (France).
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