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“Mission Critical Data Center”. It is hoped that the initial work of the Afghan National Organization Models have gone through a complete Data Centre will serve as a basis for further discuscycle from “Centralized” Data Centers to “Decentral- sion and improvement and will go some way towards ized” and now back to centralized. Organizations re- facilitating some key ICT Development Objectives, alize that DATA is their strongest asset and as such namely:

are making strides to assure its availability, security • Integrating Knowledge through ICT, into all and redundancy. forms of Human Activity in Afghanistan;

The Data Center concept has also grown into its own • An efficient implementation and transformabusiness model. Organizations that provide redun- tion of e-Governance and e-Democracy, as well as of dant and offsite storage for other companies are e-Government and e-Administration activities; and building state of the art facilities on a global scale. • The creation of wealth in Afghanistan.

At the heart of these facilities is the “ICT Infrastruc- The direct beneficiaries of the Afghan National Data ture”. Centre (ANDC) will be the Afghan Public in general, The impact of Information and Communications the government and the private sectors in particuTechnologies (ICT) on Development has been amply lar.

charted in the last decade of the 20th Century as:

• A “Multi-Dimensional” Process, The Government can make it, requested and/or • A “Multi-Stakeholder” Process, and necessary on-line information and documentation, • A “Pervasive” Process. fully available to the public and private sectors, through different facilities. All sectors can input, So significant is this impact that those that have the store, access and process information and docucapacity to apply these technologies have witnessed mentation, in secure and confidential manners.

rates of development that continue to fuel the “Digi- This programme will be the driving force for the autal Divide”. tomation of most of the administrative systems acThe issue of the Digital Divide - whether in an inter- tually in use, by governmental organizations.

national context or within national regions, states,- One of the main outcomes of the project will be the departments; has finally taken its place on the synergy and close collaboration of the three (govpolitical agenda of most nations. ernment, public and private) sectors, with each other.

In the meantime, a number of multilateral and bilat- This will create a very productive synergy among the eral aid agencies have earmarked resources explic- government entities and the public and private secitly for related “Capacity Building” and “Resource tors.

Mobilization”, in the harnessing of ICTs; and/or for Public will have the chance to directly contact -- “Onthe adoption of an ICT Component (“Data Centers”), Line” -- the government organizations, reducing and to support sectorial development programmes. overcoming current time-consuming systems of curIt is therefore gratifying to realize that the Afghan rent governmental organizations.

ICT LAW - ИКТ ПРАВО IKT HQUQU 01/I K T H Q U Q U IKT HQUQU I K T H Q U Q U www.ictlaw.info PROJECT PURPOSES PROJECT ACTIVITIES • To catalyze and facilitate the articulation of Na- • Crosscutting activities, including improving the tional, Regional and Local ICT Strategies, together web pages of government agencies and making the with their associated planning and monitoring most common government forms, and instructions, processes; a Regional focus is encouraged whilst available on line;

maintaining National sharing; • Establishing an Afghan based capacity to reli• To help nurture sectorial peer networks on a ably operate and maintain networks and systems;

regional basis; • Providing required hardware, software and • To encourage the sharing of programme in- networking capabilities to government institutions, to formation and resources amongst Government Or- allow them to serve as a main interface between citiganizations and other agencies. zens and government for obtaining forms, applying for services and making payments;

PROJECT OBJECTIVES • The Data Centers, throughout its decentralized network of outlets, will receive payments on be• The implementation of the Afghan National half of the Government and the main utilities, and will Data Centre in Kabul; provide money transfer services to citizens;

• The implementation of 5 regional Data Cen- • Providing selected ministries and other agenters in Kandahar, Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif, Kunduz, and cies with the e-Government services to network exJalalabad. Scheduled in 5 years time; isting computers (Local Area Networks / LAN; Wide • To fully interconnect all these Data Centers; Area networks / WAN; and Virtual Private networks / • The convening of National, Regional and VPN);

Local related events; • Government Agencies could be selected on • The identification of national, regional and the basis of the internal capability to manage a Local local core groups of public and/or private experts and Area Network (LAN), on the “business plan” to use institutions willing to constitute sectorial networks (e.g. the technology and on the commitment to provide adfor Health, Agriculture, Tourism, … etc); equate resources for maintenance and equipment re• The development of templates constituting newal;

structured checklists and/or guidelines for the • Financing a centralized “Help Desk” to support Development of national, regional, local, and sector- ICT users;

ial strategies; • Providing simple ICT Solutions to improve the • The cascading of national strategy formulation processes of selected governmental agencies, inin a number of situations through expert assisted fa- cluding the Ministries, Registrar’s Offices, Revenue cilitation, where requested. Authorities, Tender Boards, Health, and Traffic Sections. These solutions could include digitizing The project will seek to use ICT judiciously at national, (through imaging) the records of birth, marriage, regional and local levels: death, …; putting the customs tariffs schedule on-line and updating rates as soon as they are modified; de• to improve communications between govern- veloping a process and data base to streamline isment agencies, between government and Citizens, suance of tax compliance certificates; putting on-line and between government and businesses; procurement notices and awards by the Tender Board • to increase efficiency and effectiveness in the as well as other information of value to potential biddelivery of public services; ders studying the possibility of introducing e-Pro• to broaden access to Government content that curement in the future; disseminating health, is useful to citizens; and drug and care information to regional health care • To make this content available online, in- workers with capacity to exchange clinical advice with creasing its value and reducing transaction costs. experts; providing simple processes and data bases to the Police (traffic sections) to certify ownership, liAutomated processes and data bases will be devel- censing and identity for vehicle stops;

oped using basic solutions that can be developed and • Providing farmers with information on marmaintained locally at low cost. kets, prices and agricultural production practices;

• … And many others.

These objectives are in full relation with all current and Another important purpose of this project could be to related Afghan Government Initiatives, as well as re- increase the attractiveness of Afghanistan as a site lated Donor Activities. for e-Services Exports, because, and it is important ICT LAW - ИКТ ПРАВО IKT HQUQU 01/I K T H Q U Q U IKT HQUQU I K T H Q U Q U www.ictlaw.info to mention it here, the regional market for ICT Service These are some of the services the ANDC could Exports is growing rapidly. implement and provide:

These exports could range from low value added services such as call centers to fairly high value • Registry added services such as programming. Initially, it is • Document Management System likely that most activities will be concentrated a low • GroupWare end. • Identity Cards The project could improve the services of a firm that • Election Cards will evaluate the environment for Afghanistan for e- • Birth Certificates Service Exports, will develop a plan to market • Marriage Certificates Afghanistan as a site for e-Service exports and will • Death Certificates help implement that marketing plan. • School Certificates and/or Diplomas A number of investors considering Afghanistan as a • University Certificates and/or Diplomas site for establishing e-Export facilities have encoun- • Driving Licenses tered difficulties finding adequate sites for establishing • Government Payroll facilities. • Phone Billing The development of sites and services (streets, elec- • Post Office Billing tricity, water connections, drainage and broadband • Afghan and International News and Articles connectivity) to encourage the establishment of ex- • Ministry’s News and Announcements port-oriented ICT Park or Parks, will be studied during • On-Line Data Capture and Validation the Project implementation. • On-Line Data Storage The ANDC will offer e-Government Services to all • On-Line Data Processing Project related activities at reasonable- international • On-Line Backup standard costs. • Server Replication The project will capitalize on the significant • Database Replication economies of scale and density, as well as network • Disaster Recovery externalities associated with ICT Infrastructure De- • Statistics velopment. • Public Sector Solutions (e-Education / LearnThe project will establish an Internet based network ing, e-Finance, e-Banking …) as well as an ICT Technology - Network management • Public Sector Home Pages capacity to sustain the network and support e-Gov- • E-Government Activities ernment efforts. • Homeland Security Regional Centers (in Kandahar, Heart, Mazar Sharif, • Central Government Kunduz, and Jalalabad) from which multiple local • Regional and Local Governments groups can be served, have been identified on the • Academic Activities basis of population density and proximities, but every • Public Policy Resource Centre region in the country will have at least one Regional • News and Articles Distribution Point, regardless of population density. • Public Sector Online Store ICT LAW - ИКТ ПРАВО IKT HQUQU 01/I K T H Q U Q U IKT HQUQU I K T H Q U Q U www.ictlaw.info ПРОЕКТ "АНТИСПАМ" -противодействие распространению спама с помощью закона, этики и технологии Интервью с известным российским экспер- для всех» получила статус наблюдателя в «Лонтом в сфере информационных технологий, донском плане действий по международному координатором Проекта “Антиспам” Евге- сотрудничеству в области применения закононием Альтовским дательства против спама» (London Action Plan on International Spam Enforcement Cooperation) и с тех пор является единственным представителем РосЕвгений Валерьевич, расскажите, пожалуйста, сии в этой представительной международной коапро деятельность Проекта "АнтиСпам", коор- лиции.

динатором которого являетесь вы.

Вообще, что такое спам, и в каких документах Одновременно с повсеместным распростране- (российских или зарубежных) она отражена нием информационных и коммуникационных технологий (ИКТ), их плоды все чаще используются в Пытаясь бороться со спамом, а тем более устанопреступных и злонамеренных целях. Например, вить законодательное регулирование этой обладля массовой безадресной рассылки сообщений сти, мы сразу же сталкиваемся с по сетям связи - спама. фундаментальной проблемой - определением Одна из целей Программы ЮНЕСКО «Информа- термина "спам". Говоря "спам", каждый подразуция для всех» - создание платформы для между- мевает свое. Один - все сообщения от лиц, с конародного обсуждения политики в целях лучшего торыми он не состоит в переписке, другой только понимания этических, правовых и социальных по- сообщения рекламного содержания, третий - лишь следствий ИКТ. навязчивую рекламу, приходящую изо дня в день.

Учитывая вредность спама для общества и све- По сути дела каждый решает сам, что считать спаряясь с зарубежным опытом, МОО ВПП ЮНЕСКО мом, а что нет.

«Информация для всех» в мае 2003 года начала Таким образом, мы не можем дать определение реализацию Проекта «АнтиСпам», целью которого термину "спам" исходя из количества сообщений является противодействие распространению или их содержания. Единственное, что раздраспама с помощью мер правового, этического и тех- жает всех противников спама, - это его безадреснического характера. ность. Спамер, который производит рассылку по В рамках проекта проходит обсуждение проектов собранным с миру по нитки миллионам адресов, дополнений к российскому законодательству, на- не знает, к кому попадет его письмо. Будет ли поправленных на противодействие распростране- лучателем юридическое или физическое лицо, в нию спама; проводятся информационные каком городе и даже стране живет получатель, кампании и выпускаются информационные мате- каков его уровень доходов, образование, возраст, риалы с целью формирования в обществе нега- пол, интересы и т.д.

тивного отношения к спаму как средству Соответственно предложение изучить иностранраспространения информации. ный язык в Москве, купить металлопрокат в КемеВ рамках проекта была выпущена первая в Рос- рово или заказать в Америке средство для сии брошюра, в которой комплексно рассматри- увеличения размеров мужского достоинства ваются все аспекты проблемы: технологический, может с одинаковым успехом получить как стоэкономический, этический и юридический; подго- личный предприниматель, так и учительница из товлены отчеты для Организации экономического Владивостока. Именно такое несоответствие сосотрудничества и развития (OECD) и Междуна- держания сообщения и интересов получателя выродноготелекоммуникационного союза (ITU) о пра- зывает наибольшее раздражение. Второй вовом положении спама в России; разработан раздражающий фактор спама - навязчивость законопроект, направленный на противодействие является лишь следствием безадресности. Ведь распространению спама. спамер не ведет учета, кому и какое письмо уже В 2006 году МОО ВПП ЮНЕСКО «Информация было послано, тем более что спамеров много ICT LAW - ИКТ ПРАВО IKT HQUQU 01/I K T H Q U Q U IKT HQUQU I K T H Q U Q U www.ictlaw.info Таким образом, единственное, что позволяет В проекте дополнений к Федеральному закону четко определить спам - это безадресность сооб- «О связи», разработанных в рамках Проекта щения. Однако, пытаясь дать юридически гра- «АнтиСпам», мы предлагаем следующую формотное определение спама даже на основе этого мулировку:

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