At the same time in the environment of the spreading economic crisis there is a problem of retraining of a consid14,erable number of the unemployed evolving, 12,including the workers of different profes10,sions. And here the efforts are focused on 8,the institutions of primary vocational train- 6,ing that should imple4,ment “anticipating” programs. It seems 2,though that in the environment of growing 0,uncertainty of the fu2000/01 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/ture development of the economy in Rus- Calculated on the basis of: Federal State Statistics Service, Russian in Numbers, Data for 2007/2008 study year – Russian education Fig. 1. Ratio Student-Teacher in Comprehensive Schools (number of students accounting for one teacher) 1 See www.gks.ru. Russia in numbers. Education people ЭКОНОМИКО-ПОЛИТИЧЕСКАЯ СИТУАЦИЯ В РОССИИ ЭКОНОМИКО-ПОЛИТИЧЕСКАЯ СИТУАЦИЯ В РОССИИ RUSSIAN ECONOMY: TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES sia the effect of this measure will be nut insignificant and the quality of the fulfilled programs will be rather low.
To a considerable extent this conclusion is accounted fro by the fact that the system of the primary vocational training could not meet the requirements of the employers concerning the qualification of the staff trained by it up to the mark. Besides, in the pre-crisis period the problem of the effective retraining of the unemployed was not solved in those regions of Russia, where its level was by far above the average Russian one.
According to the data of the Federal State Statistics Service the number of independent state and municipal secondary special educational institutions has reduced. At the same time the number of branches of the institutions of the secondary vocational training institutions increased by 25 in 2008 as compared with 2007 (by 5.9%) and was equal to 449. Over the same period of time the number of higher professional educational institutions went up by 26 (2.3%).
It should also been noted that the number of the state higher educational institutions increased by 2, whereas the number of non-governmental higher educational institutions increased by 24.
In 2008 the enrollment in state and municipal secondary vocational institutions reduced by 60.3 thousand of people as compared with 2007, that is 8.3%. According to the data of the Federal State Statistics Service, 190.4 thousand of students started their studies in the special secondary educational institutions on condition of fully-funded training, which made 28.4% of the total number of those enrolled (in 2007 – 238.1 thousand of people or 32.6%). Thus, the paid entrance to the institutions of secondary vocational training reduced by more than 20% in 2008. On the one hand it is connected with the demographic situation in the country: the number of the young people of the corresponding age decreases while the number of the budget-funded places sustains, which results in the decrease in the paid contingent. On the other hand a sharp acceleration of the said process (in 2008 the paid enrollment to the secondary special institutions decreased by only 6% in 2007 versus 2006) testifies, in our opinion, the fact that the redistribution of the contingent between the secondary and higher professional education is intensifying.
The system of the higher education remains the last level of the formal professional education, where the number of the students continues to increase (in primary and secondary professional education the number has been decreasing in recent years).
In 2008 the number of students in the Russian higher educational institutions reached 7.million of people. It should be noted that the number in the governmental sector increased by only 6.4 thousand of people (that is by 0.1%), whereas in non-governmental sector – by 45.thousand of people (by 3.6%).
The total enrollment in the higher educational institutions in 2008 made 1641.7 thousand of people, having decreased by 39.9 thousand of people as compared with 2007. It should be noted that in 2008 the admission to the state and municipal institutions decreased by 21.thousand of people (by 1.5%). The reduction occurred at the expense of the students accepted for the internal training, where the decrease was equal to 47.7 thousand of people or 6.7%. The number of students accepted for the correspondence courses increased at the same time by 29.8 thousand of students or by 5.1%.
The admission for budget-funded places in state and municipal institutions of higher education has been reducing for the fifth year in the row. On the whole, from 2004 to 2008 the number of those accepted to budget-funded places reduced by 67.3 thousand of people or by 10.7% (table 1).
According to the latest data of the Federal State Statistics Service, in 2008 the admission to the state and municipal higher educational institutions reduced by 1.7% in 2008, and to nongovernmental institutions – by 6.3%. At the same time among those accepted to the first year at higher educational institutions there will be 65.8% of those paying for their education.
НАЗВАНИЕ IN RUSSIA: CRISIS HASРАЗДЕЛА НАЗВАНИЕ РАЗДЕЛА НАЗВАНИЕ NOT...
EDUCATIONРАЗДЕЛА НАЗВАНИЕ РАЗДЕЛА Table DYNAMICS OF ADMISSION TO STATE AND MUNICIPAL HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN 2000-2008, AS THOUSAND OF PEOPLE State and municipal institutions Non-governmental Years Budget-funded adinstitutions Total Paid admission mission 2003/04 1411.7 622.6 789.1 231.2004/05 1384.5 628.6 755.9 274.2005/06 1372.5 613.5 759.0 268.2006/07 1376.7 585.3 791.4 280.2007/08 1384.0 568.8 815.2 297.2008/09 1362.7 561.3 801.4 279.Source: Federal State Statistics Service, Russia in Numbers The data of the Federal State Statistics Service also testify that in 2008 one more trend continues to strengthen in the Russian higher education, which can be regarded as negative: the proportion of correspondent students increases in the total number of students.
Thus, as it has already been mentioned, in 2008 the number of those accepted for internal training reduced while the number of correspondent students went up simultaneously.
In 2008 566.0 thousand of people were accepted to state and municipal higher education institutions on the basis of the result of the Unified State Exam (USE), which is by 117.thousand of people or by 26.1% more than the corresponding admission in 200. At the same time it should be noted that 2008 was the last year for conduction of the USE experiment and starting with 2009 the Unified State Exam should become the norm. However, despite the increase in the number of those accepted to higher educational institutions basing on the USE results, only 41.5% of the total number of the admitted was admitted basing on its results.
As a result of 2008 Russia holds the second place by the number of students per 10 000 of people, the number being 525 people, the higher number being observed only in the USA.
However if one takes into account the students of the secondary vocational training institutions as well, Russia becomes the absolute leader with 695 students per 10 000 people.
In 2008 the expenditures of the federal budget for education went up by 20.9% as compared with 2007. At the same time the expenditures for higher professional education made RUR 263.2 billion in 2008, having increased by 22.9% versus 2007.
On March 16, 2009 the meeting of the Russian Public Council on the development of the education “Education and Crisis” took place, which had been the first meeting of the council over a long time. The consequence is that though by the end of 2008/2009 study year the system of education will exist in virtually the same regime, the signals of the economic crisis have already reached it.
ЭКОНОМИКО-ПОЛИТИЧЕСКАЯ СИТУАЦИЯ В РОССИИ ЭКОНОМИКО-ПОЛИТИЧЕСКАЯ СИТУАЦИЯ В РОССИИ RUSSIAN ECONOMY: TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES MEETINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN MARCH M.Goldin In March the following issues were considered at the meeting of the Government of the Russian Federation: on the course of the fulfillment of the measures aimed at the recovery of the situation in the financial sector and in some branches of the economy, amendments to the Budgetary Code of the Russian Federation and Federal Laws reflecting the peculiar features of the budgetary process in the environment of the economic crisis; the course of the implementation of the federal target programs and Federal Targeted Investment Program in 2008.
At the meeting of the Government of the Russian Federation on March, 5 the report by the Minister of Economic Development on the course of implementation of the measures for the recovery of the situation in the financial sector and some branches of economy was heard.
It is stated in the report that the main document including anti-crisis measures for different sectors of the economy is the Plan of actions aimed at the recovery of the situation in the financial sector and some branches of the economy, approved by the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation on November 6, 2008 No 4863p-P13 and by the Order of the Ministry for Economic Development of the Russian Federation from 10.11.No 383.
The Plan comprises 55 measures, of which 37 points had been fulfilled by February 24, 2009, including 17 federal laws, 33 decrees of the Government of the Russian Federation, 5 orders of the Government of the Russian Federation adopted.
At the same time in order to solve specific problems of the development of some sectors of the economy, as well as to tune the instruments of the state support for each of the sectors of the economy the Government of the Russian Federation develops and fulfills additional anti-crisis measures aimed at supporting the development of the economy and the leading sectors that are most vulnerable to the perturbations at the financial market and the worsening of the conditions for the banking crediting, which will enable to maintain the rates and quality of the economy growth in the environment of the global financial crisis.
In order to expand and to increase the effectiveness of the monitoring over the use of the monetary funds by the credit institutions, which are allocated to support the financial system of the Russian Federation, the Federal Law from December 30, 2008 No 317-FZ “On making changes to articles 46 and 76 of the Federal Law from July 10, 2002 No 86-FZ “On the Central Bank of the Russian Federation” was adopted. In accordance with the Law mentioned the Bank of Russia adopted a number of regulatory acts.
In order to organize the constant control over the realization of the adopted decisions aimed at the recovery of the situation in the financial sector and some branches of the economy, provision for the conduction of the complex analysis and definition of the directions for further development of the branches of the economy, the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation from December 15, 2008 No 957 forms the Government Committee on increasing the steadiness of the development of the Russian economy.
On March 10 at the meeting of the government of the Russian Federation the draft of the federal law “On making changes to the Budget Code of the Russian Federation and НАЗВАНИЕ РАЗДЕЛА НАЗВАНИЕ РАЗДЕЛА НАЗВАНИЕOF THE GOVERNMENT...
MEETINGS РАЗДЕЛА НАЗВАНИЕ РАЗДЕЛА some legislative acts of the Russian Federation” (the Bill). The bill was developed in order to change the norms of the Budget Code of the Russian Federation and some federal laws to ensure the equilibration of the federal budget in the process of its formation, approval and execution in the environment of the prolonged financial crisis, taking into account the deficit of federal budget forecast for 2009-2011. Besides the Bill envisages the amendments aimed at increasing the efficiency of the interbudgetary relations and the improvement of the organization of the budget process in the environment of the financial crisis.
The first amendment concerns the possibility to use the means of the Reserve funds to finance the deficit of the federal budget. According to the law it is suggested that the effect of clause 1 article 969 of the Budget Code concerning the establishment of the goals for the use of the means of the Reserve fund as well as clause 4 of the same article according to which the means of the Reserve fund are used only for financial security of oil and gas transfer in case oil and gas earnings are not sufficient are suspended for the period up to January 1, 2013. In this connection of the Bill envisages the amendment, according to which the means of the Reserve fund in 2010-2012 can be used to secure the balance in the federal budget to the amounts established by the federal law on the federal budget.
According to the second amendment to the Federal Law from April, 26 2007 No 63-FZ “On making changes to the Budget Code of the Russian Federation concerning regulation of the budget process and bring some legislative acts of the Russian Federation in concordance with the budget legislation of the Russian Federation” an amendment is introduced according to which clause 2 article 96.6 of the Budget Code that sets restrictions concerning non-oil and gas deficit of the federal budget as percentage to the GDP (no more than 4.7% of the gross domestic product forecast in the corresponding financial year) will be put into the effect on January 1, 2013.
The third amendment envisages the corrections to the norms of the Budget Code regulating the procedure of making changes to the federal law on the federal budget, according to which in case non-oil-and-gas profits of the federal budget in the current financial year reduce by more than 15% as compared with the amount of profit established by the federal law on the federal budget, the statements of the federal law on the federal budget for the current financial year and the planning period concerning the planning period may be recognized as invalid.
The fourth amendment enhances the possibility for granting subsidies from the regional budgets to support the measures providing the equilibrating of the local budgets. There is a norm introduced in the bill according to which in 2009-2012 the limitation established by article139.1 of the Budget Code on granting other interbudgetary transfers from the regional budgets to the local budgets within the limits of no more than 10% of the total amount of the interbudgetary transfers from the regional budgets to local budgets may be exceeded at the amount of the subsidies to support measured providing the equilibrating of local budgets.
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