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ay oey ocoeoc cpoeca cocae oaa apeeoc, eooc eo poy [66]. B oe o oca opace poeoc, poy oopx oa, a opy pya apee, cpoece poy eoa, a o c opy pya.

B cy oao apeeoc cpoxc oeo oae eoxooc ooc cpoex opaa, oee peex a coopye. poe oo, eooc cpoeo poy po aeo eppopao paoeoc oeo.

Bopo oeo ocoeoc cpoeca ec eoc eo pooceoo a, o ocec ocee apacae execo oooc coopyaex oeo. a ocoeoc po aeoy oey oopox cpec, oex cpoeco, o oycaae eoxooc eo oocpooo apoa epapo c c pae pyx opace ceo apooo xoca eo [79].

eoc pooceoo a oycoae ae eoxooc ceepoo copae cpoo cpoeca oeo eecoopaoc p cpoeca aece pep ooo opae p ooo-aeaeco oepoa poecco ypae cpoe pooco.

Bao ocoeoc cpoeca ec aea ea pyoeoc ao eco e eo poy, o ocoo peopeee ooceoc coee poecce oee oeo.

B ycox exooeco ceaa cpoeoo pooca o ocoeco po ooy oecy ceapoax opaee, ox pae cpoeo-oax pao peyx opeeex yc y x pooceo eeoc p opaa ypae cpoeco.

ocoeoc cpoeca oocc ae paoopae eo poy. o ooopae ocec e, o cpoee opaa ocoo c eppopa ocya ce aey ac opace. aaoe ocoeco aeo opaae peee oo cpoeo opaae oopao oopxc ox poex pee. B cyax, oa cooae ox poeo ooo, apep p cpoece oeo oo coaoooo aae, oa ooee pao o pe poeo, ae ocoeoc peea ecoc, xapaepo pyo, paceo eepaypo apyoo oyxa py ec yco. Mooopae oeo cpoeca po aeoy yopoa cooc poex pao apye papaoy peee ox e cpoeo ycp oo exoo pooca cpoeooax pao.

Paoopae eooc cpoeo poy aeo cee yco poecc opaa pooca, a a a ao cpoeo oee o aec aaec aoo, o pe a, apep, aocpoe oae poecc yca opeeex eae oe ocyecc oa ae epexo a yc ooo e o ox cyax cyeceo e ee cyecyy exoo.

Oo ocoeoce cpoeca ec ooopae aoaeeoc opeex pecypco, o oycoae oee ooapax aepa p ope exooecx pee o poocy cpoeo-oax pao. poe oo, oa aco eac oeaypa cpoex aepao ycoe ypaee aepaoexec cpoeco.

Bao oe aeoe e a cpoeco paoopax coea ex yco: oea eepayp, aocepx ocao, cocoe pya, c epa .. p o ceye e y coxacec xapaep epecex e aopo, o oycoae eoxooc epoocoo oxoa poecca ypae cpoe pooco.

Bepooc xapaep cpoecy a oey ypae pa pye oyae aop, oope accpyc cey opao [87]:

1. Cyae aop execoo opa, cy oopx oo oec ceooe oo a, exao, pacopx cpec;

xo cpo eepx oya; oe aeco cpoex aepao e, e ooee pe x o aae; eee poex pee poecce cpoeca ..

2. Cyae aop exooecoo aa: ycpaee paa, oee epeex pao, eee exoo pao cece ae aepao ..

3. ecapye aop opaaooo opa, cy oopx oocc apyee cpoo a poeo-ceo oyea;

ecoepeea ocaa aepao, e cpoycp oopyoa; eoee oe opaa ycaoex cpoo oeco pao; eee ao o oy oeo cyaa; exaa paox opeeex aa ..

4. Cyae aop aecoo opa: e, ceoa, op, ooe, a eepaypa apyoo oyxa ..

5. Cyae aop coaoo opa ae, a exo a paoy, eoee ycaoex aa, opa xee aepao oopyoa ..

B ccee aaoo cpoeca ocooe eco aa opaa aao, oope yacy apoa aax oe, oecea cpoeco poeo-ceo oyeae, oopyoae cea aepaa o ycaoeo oeaype. poe oo, aa ocyec ycoaaoe pao oecoe opooae copoaoo oopyoa [45]. o ocoeco, ya pay eocey paeoc cpoex opaa opaa aao, cyeceo ycoe poecc ypae cpoeco.

Paccopee ocoeoc cpoeca, a opac apooo xoca, oppoac a poe ce cop pa cpoeo ycp, a ece c e eac cpyypa ypae cpoeco acoc o: ee, cooecyx pa aa pa apooo xoca; acao cpoeca; cee ycpaa; ypo execo cooc oox oeo p.

a caocoea opac apooo xoca, aaoe cpoeco opaoao coppoaoc oe 30-x oo. B o pe ooo oe aax oe apooe xoco coca ooo p. py. cpoece o ao e o oee 2,5 . eoe [70].

o epe pa apooo xoca cpa ocoo pocxoo peee cce ypae aa cpoeco cooece c ypoe pa pooex c poocex ooe, c o ee ee coao-ooeco cpyype aeo oeca, cooec c o ooec yco.

cop caoe ae cpae cpoeo opac oo e ceye aee a:

1923 o ooeo aao opaceo ceaa, oc ceapoae opaa;

1935 o yaoe epexo eepaoy opy;

1938 o cpoeco eec cpoey opac;

1957 o ocyece epexo eppopaoy py ypae cpoeco;

1962 o oeee ceapoax oax opaa cocae ocyapceoo pooceoo oea o oa cea paoa CCCP;

1965 o peopaoae ocyapceoo oea cepco oax ceax pao CCCP (Moacecpo CCCP).

C pae cce ypae cpoeco a opac apooo xoca oppoac opaaoe cpyyp ypae cpoe pep (cpoeo-oa pep). Bopoca ye opaaoo cpyyp ypae oceo ocaoo oo pyo [16, 3, 25, 62, 58]. aeop "cpyypa" opaae cpoee ype opy cce. Hae cpyyp eoee apy cex peao cyecyx cce. Cpyypa cococye coxpae ycooo coco cce ec oaaee ee opaa.

epexo o aeop "cpyypa" o opaaoa cpyypa ypae, ceye e y, o oeo cpyypa oe cya cao pepe (cpyypa pep); pooco (cpyypa pooca) .., a ae a ee cce ypae cce pooca. Cpyypa pep pecae coo pee ceo ce cpyyp pooca cpyyp ypae. Paccapa ope oe cpyypa, e pae o cocay coepa aoc eeo ey, yoay, opaoy cpyyp ypae, cpyypy aapaa ypae. aae opaa ypae ec ocpoee cce. Ccea, ey eea oopo ycaoe c, oeceae aoece ee eeo, apaeoe a ocee opeeex ee, aaec opaaoo.

o opaaox cpyyp ypae epapo caa c aece coepecoae opaa pooca.

Ca poco cpyyp o cpoo ea (c. pc.1 [9], poee 1). ea cpyypa ocoaec a ooex "pyoocooee" opaae cay oy cye paee ypaeecoo pya - a oay pao, pacope, yaa a x coee. ee cpyyp pcy pep eox acao, ox eeape poocee y ycy c oe ecoo exooe. C poco pep epx eax, ocoax a cpoo ex ooex (paa, pooce yaco), paeee ooepa pya o ypae ye e yaac pa poo oaoa oe (c. pc.2 [47], poee 1).

B o e pe ea opa ooe pyooe-oe a coco peaa opaaooo pa eoaa ec oae eeo paec cex opax cpyyp.

Cey ao o opax opaaox cpyyp ypae oc eee coee ax y p pyooex, oop oocc a opaee, ocyece aa cya ocaoy poe, eeppoae oey aepa x pee. B ax cpyypax poocee coe ae opaee oc oo coey ecoey pyooe, pyx ooe e oycaec. Tae cpyyp aa eo-a [47].

Bopacae ypo paee ooepa pya ypae py pooceo-xoce ccea, copooaeec oppoae paeeoo paoopaoo yoaoo aapaa, oycoo opacae pacpee cep ax opao. B o e pe yeee cooc papaaaex pee cax c oeo pao po ooe ey e opaaoo cpyyp opoax ooe, oope ye e c cpoo eo-a.

Paeee ypaeecoo pya o py eo yoao ceaa oaaoc o aoee opex coepecoa opaa ypae. Cy eo cocoa ee oeceoc a oee oex y ypae, ceaa ee ypaeecoo aapaa p oe ao y oee eee yoo epapxeco cpyypa x ee, ace o coepa, cooc oeo oex pao.

oa cpeac p paccope opaaox cpyyp oe cpoo yoax cpyyp [47], oa ey c o ypaee pyooca ocycy ee ooe eoaaoo pacopeca, a oppyc epepece yoae c (c. pc.3 [47], poee 1). Oao ooeex coaoooecx cceax ae eooo paepa ao oxo po ooe opooo oea oopaoo pao a ypoe aoo pyooe, o paec ae yoay cpyypy cex ee peyec. o o pe ae cpyyp co e pacpocpae e oy oce eycex oo x pee o aoo oxoa oaac ye 30-x oax.

B aoee yepcao ope p yoao ceaa, e cya poopee c po eoaa, peayec eo-yoax cpyypax [17, 43, 47] (c. pc.4 [9], poee 1).

x cyecea xapaepca coco o, o oee pacopeco pecypca eeoaae xo oooe ex pyooee, a ypaee poecca oce ocaex ee paax eex pecypco eoopx pyx opae oaaec a pyooee yoax cy opaee.

epcaoc aoo oxoa ec oeceee peyeoo paoopa opaaox op pep x occe x acao, cooc, ypoe epaa. eee acao, oeaypoo yoaoo paoopa (epca) eeoc pep 50-60-x . peo ooe ao oa eo-yoax cpyyp, oa ypaeec aapa cpyyppyec ye e o y ypae, a o ee caocoex poocex oeo (oee) paax pyo xoceo opaa.

ao cpyyp a aaeoo "oaoo" [17, 43, 47] a xapaepo opaoae oee, ceapyxc a pooce oopoo py e ycy (poyoa opea), a ee pooceo-xocex oepa aao peoe (eppopaa opea) (c. pc.5 [17], poee 1). Teppopaa opea p o oe eco coeac c poyoo, oaoo eeo.

oaa cpyypa oe pec yp poocex oee. Toa aece oee oococ e oo poyoe poocee e (ao-a, pooca c ay a), o oyae oocey caocoeoc ocyae opaee pacope, peoe, aooee, coe, poee. opaee aec oeceoc a ocee ocaex ee paa pacopeca pecypca, oy cya xocee ooe a c py oee, a c e opaa, caoc caocoe xopace ea, o ec a pao x pepae oee. Tae cpyyp ec, apep, oeex aooo poeoc, cecoxoceo aocpoe pyx opacx [1, 11, 84].

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