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Bo opo ooe 1920-x aae 1930-x . peo ycaec pa "acceco" oe, pe pooocaec ooe apaee eop eeea, aaoe o aopa "yacec oo". B paoax M.oe, . Mo, . Pocepepa, . apapa . Caoa oe "acceco o" ayo opaa ypae pac coepeo eocao a eopeco, a paeco ooe. pooocaec ocoa aya - cooo poocex ooe, ocoa opa"eoeecx ooe" "eoeecoo oee". eee ycao x "o" papaoa peoea, apaex a oopoee coao-cxooecoo aa a pep, a "yaa" ooe ey pepae pao. eo ooy epe x a axoc cceoa cxooecx oo oee e poecce pooca, "pyoe ooe", "pyoe op", poe "oa copyeca", "oyaoe apep", "eopaa opaa" ..

B eco cce oo ycpa "paoc" paoo "acceco o" pepee eop "eoeecx ooe" "eoeecoo oee" c o oex pecae o ypae oo ca apaee cceoa, xapaepoe o "coax cce" pecaea paoa ax copeex aopo, a.

Cao, . apap, . oep p. Bpe oppoa oo apae opaae popeccpyee ycoee ce xoceo yxoo copeeoo oeca, opacaee yace ocyapca o ox oeceo eoxox popaax, poc ae acx opopa, eco cax c ocyapce opaa, peypy ooecoe pae opee eo oy oy.

oa "coax cce" aac c o oex coooecx oe pec poaapoa peecye a ppoy eo ypae oo o paec o oac opaa ypae. O eopeec ooe oo apae ec cpeee paccapa coay opaa a oecy ccey c po cocax ee oex occe. a occea ooc yya, opay cpyypy, eopay cpyypy, eopay opaa, cayc po, a ae ecoe opyee. "Cy poecca" opaa ec "oya", "paoece", "pe pee".

B cox paoax pecae "coax cce" ac ceoe, ocoe ee co opaa ooe, aoe cpeee coa yepcao eop opaaooo popecca coeaec c oa pe p pee o aa oce epe, aeaece eo.

cy aoee ccex cceoa, opeex o a pa ay ypae, oo oec pao C. pa, M. Cappa .

oppecepa. B paoe [6] pepa cepea oa ococoo yooo ayoo occe po epe ypae pooco, a ae aoee ooo pacp o cce cceoo oxoa, opao c "epoo a". o py eca eo peca paocopoe oooc pee opoco ypae c oo epeecx oee oaa "o epeecoo pep". B paoe [80] aapyc oe p oax xocex pee, cax c poepoae peypoae poocex poecco.

peoee e eo pee aa, oax oac ypae pooco, opac a oce pao aea pa ypae pep CA. . oppecep [85] paccapae cpyypy o opaa a ce cax py c pyo opao ooa opa c yo, e pac pee.

"poea aa", opooaa pe poex opopa, pecae coo cooyoc eoo oepoa opaaoo cce poeoo pep c yeo eo aoce c opee ocaa. Moe opaaoo cce poeoo pep ee ec ocox apaepo aocax ooo.

x aa, ocooe oopyoae, paoa ca, e cpe eppyc ocpeco opaoo ce ecoo ooa, oopoy ooc opeeea po pa ccee ee coceoo aecoo xapaepa.

"Cce oxo", "cce aa" coocoea c aco oe ca pacpocpae oee epaype o ypae. Cce oxo oc peyae ooe oa ceaco o cceoa oepa, cece pa oe eop cce, eop aoaecoo peypoa ypae, a ae epe, ax eoooec aapa c eoe eoe paopox ypaeecx aa. a oepaec o ox aepacx ax o opoca opaa ypae, cce oxo popeae ce oee aoe aee p oocoa ypaeecx pee cax pax oacx. Haoee poa paoa eooo cceoo oxoa pae poeccopy .epaa, yey ee 1937 .

e "oe eop cce". pee "oe eop cce" .epaa opeee a oppoae ca ox po, oope ece cce ooe. oca copeex oecex oxoo xapaepo coxpaee epoaax aa "oe eop cce" o e, a o copypoa .epaa. poo oe ececee yoe, a oa pacpee ocaoo cxox aa.

Cyoc cceoo oxoa oe aop co ceyey:

1. opypoae ee cee x epapx o aaa aoo eeoc, cao c ypaee, ocoeo c pe pee;

2. ocee ocaex ee p ax apaax ocpeco cpaeoo aaa aepax ye eoo oce ee ocyece cooecyeo opa;

3. oecea oea (aa) ee, eoo cpec x oce, ocoaa e a acx pepx, a a poo cecopoe oee cex oox apyex peyao eeoc.

B paoax [47, 55, 61] paccapaec cce oxo aay opaa pa ypae. poe coepecoa opaa ypae cac o ooe ope oea pooceoxoce opaa x oeca, oope o cooecye y o oce oeceo-ax ee. Opaa paccapaec p o a ea eo opeeea coaa eococ, oopa pecae coo eoeey ac oeca a "opaeco cce" [40]. B o aece oa opaae ao o oeceoooeco opa, oopo cyecye.

py ceac oac cceoo oxoa C. Oep [57] cye oaa eoooecy eo eoc eaco o cooa eoecx eoo BM.

Pae ypaeeco e ae cpae poxoo ycox caoo pa pox ooe, a epo 1930-1990-x . ooo x ocyc. ooy eoxox peoco pa eop pa eeea o e, ao oa paccapaac e, Pocc e o.

Oao eoxooc ooppoa poocee poecc eeoc e cyecye x ycox, a p pe, a p oao-acpao ccee. ooy e eco opeeee oe, e oopx e oe ooc aoe ypaee. eo a x oeax cocpeoaa coe ae oeecee ceac, oppoae aa oopx poy ypaeecy c eoyco.

epe caa o opocy ypae coepac yaax epa epoo. Ta oyee o 23 ap 1773 . paccapac poe aeca oeo poy, ae opaoo aepaoo cypoa.

B oe X1X ea copy Mococoo execoo ya aoo o .Teopa, cea epe a oac ayoo eeea, papaoa cocey eoy paoaa pyox e. B 1903 .

eepo apoe Aaec copypoa epe ocox aoa opaa pya: ao opacaeo pooca; ao ceaa; ao oopa pooca; ao apo pya.

pepae epo poo paaco oa oeecee cceoa oooc 20-30-x . eco paac cceoa cepe ypae. Ocoo yop eac a papaoy ayx oco ypae pooco, opoco ayo opaa ypaeecoo pya. B o oppyc epe o ypae opy ax yex a A.. ace,.M. epee, H.A. Be, E.. Paepo p., oope epe o p ypyax ye coce o eopeec ocpoe.

Hapep, ace A.. [36] opaoa epa cy pya, oeo oopoo a papaoaa oe pyox ycaoo. a oe aa ce p ax, opaec aocax aoepepeaxc apae: eop pyox e poocex poeccax opaa paoeo eca, eoy paoaoo pooceoo oye, eop ypaeecx poecco. oe epaoo cya pya oxaaa cep ex exoo, oo, cxooo, oo, cop, eao. oee oo, oa coepaa cee apoe oco ax, popex oceye pooe pae ay, a epea, eepa cxoo, pooa, paceoo.

Bae ycoe cyecoa copeeoo oeca epeeo peoco eo aeeo ycooo pa ec ocooe coepecoae cce opaa ypae, oycoeoe oe poecco opaca po y ypae e oo oece pooco, o ce py cepa eoeeco eeoc. Opaaoa eeoc oeca eo eo ee oa ocoo peepea ee oo, o oece aoee ooe cooae exc oooce pecypco epecax eoea.

1.2. paec o o opaaox cpyyp ypae cpoe pep ocpoee opaaoo cpyyp ypae, aeao oe yco o opeca coa aaa, oopa coc e oo cooa ox cpyyp ypae, opaax ce eoopx ocaoo opaex ycox xoceo eeoc. "Acpaa ypoc, - oea ace cceoae T.opc T.Coep, - aaec a, e oec ocoae oo, o e cyecye ooo oaoo a cce ypae" [92]. Bece c , p ocpoe opaaoo cpyyp ypae pepe, yac ae eo ocoeoc, a: opacea cea pooca, aca pa a pep ccea pao, oopa opeeec exec poecco.

aaoe cpoeco ec ceeco cepo oeceo eeoc, apaeo a coae ox, a ae peocpy, pacpee execoe epeoopyee ecyx ocox oo [90]. Oo oaae peaee e a aca pooca, exec ypoe, e poop pa cex opace aepaoo pooca coao pacpyyp. o e oeceaec ye:

- ycopeoo pa pooex c ocoe ox paoo ox coo oex coaex, coepecoa paee pooex c, coa pacopx acpae ..;

- cyeceoo oe pooeoc, ce ceecooc poy, oecee yco pya, ooe poy, yye ee aeca a o ocoe cyeceoo oe eoc pooca a ecyx pepx cex opace apooo xoca ye x peocpy execoo epeoopye a copeeo exooeco ocoe;

- ocyece accooo o-paacoo cpoeca opoax ceax, oeco acpo opoo aceex yo, oopoc aeca x oecex a.

aaoe cpoeco ec coo pooceo cceo, oee ee paec cex opace aepaoo pooca. B cooec c accaopo opace apooo xoca coca opac "cpoeco" ac: oecpoee, oae, ceapoae pye opaa, ocyece cpoee oae pao op xoce cocoo; opaa ocyece aa peo a coopye pooceoo aae, ocyece peo a coopye epooceoo aae, peo cpoeco (app) o ya aaa; opaa o cyaaooy ype, caoy co cpoeco ex aox ca pyx oeo, coopyaex a ce aax oe, poee, poeo-caece caece opaa; opa xoceoo ypae cpoeco (pec, ypae), a ae ypae o aaoy peoy a coopye; opaa, ocyece exec aop pe cpoxc pep.

p paccope cce ypae cpoeco, eoxoo oe, o o a opaaoe cce oaa ce aeca x cce o e pe e e p oex ocoeoce, eax xapaepa cpoeoo pooca. a oepae aae .M. a [16], o yee cce ypae a ypoe opac pep oe ocyeceo p yco cceoa ox ceecx coc ypaeo cce, .e. oea ypae.

poy cpoeca, ocya xoce oopo e aoex cpoeco oeo, opaye oy ooecy aeop ocoe poocee o. o aepe a cpoeoo pooca ca oea cyaa pae eo ac (a, oopyoae, aepa) peca coo oopoe o cpoeca yac oee eaepeoo pooca. oce ca cyaa oox ycy poy oaa ycy oeo cpoea poy pepaaec ocoe [15].

Oa oex ocoeoce aoo pepae o, o eo pe, caoe c peaae poy, eopeec pao y. p o oae aaa axoe ooecoo cpyea, cocooo eo coecoa oe cee oooc aeca cpoeo poy p epeae ee opee.

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