WWW.DISSERS.RU

БЕСПЛАТНАЯ ЭЛЕКТРОННАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА

   Добро пожаловать!

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 80 | 81 ||

Язык описания шаблонов документов Целью языка описания шаблонов документов является возможность параметризации представления результирующего документа на основе таблиц, хранящихся в базе данных на сервере.

Текущее состояние исполнительной системы определяется тройкой значений: текущий оператор языка представления шаблонов документов, текущая таблица данных, номер записи в текущей таблице данных.

XII-th International Conference "Knowledge - Dialogue - Solution" Макрокомандой будем называть оператор языка представления шаблонов документов, вызывающий изменение параметров исполнительной системы (открытие новой таблицы, генерация нового фрагмента текста).

Макропеременными будем называть объекты входной программы, связанные с непосредственно с входными данными текущей таблицы (с значениями доменов, номером текущей записи).

Макрофункцией будем называть оператор языка, не приводящий к изменению состояния исполнительной системы и генерирующий значения, непосредственно не связанные с входными данными текущей таблицы.

Макроподстановкой будем называть использование макропеременной, макрокоманды или макрофункции в тексте программы на языке представления шаблонов документов.

Язык описания шаблонов реализован как язык макроподстановок. Программа на нем является шаблоном документа. Сам документ представлен в виде суперпозиции константных, не изменяемых и не зависящих от входных данных, цепочек символов и макроподстановок, вариантных частей, вид которых может изменяться в зависимости от содержимого табличных файлов и входных параметров исполнительной системы.

С функциональной точки зрения все операторы, макропеременные и функции языка разбиваются на три группы:

• управляющие процессом исполнения входной программы; они включают в себя операторы ветвления и цикла;

• обеспечивающие взаимодействие с базой данных; позволяет задать текущую таблицу (возможно – инвертированную), задать текущую запись, получить значения доменов в текущем кортеже и сведения о текущей таблице.

Служебные операторы и макрофункции. Обеспечивают взаимодействие с операционной средой (доступ к параметрам CGI - интерфейса, к переменным среды операционной системы) и функции преобразования данных.

Язык представления табличных данных.

Рассматриваемый язык обеспечивает табличное представление исходных данных во внутреннем, специфичном для данной системы формате. Каждая таблица представлена как отдельный файл, в котором представлены кортежи данной таблицы. Атрибутом является порядковый номер домена в кортеже.

Заключение В данной работе • Предложена концептуальная модель представления информации, охватывающая широкий класс энциклопедия - подобных справочных систем, предоставляющая стандартизованный набор механизмов поиска и средств навигации по содержимому. Встроенные в систему механизмы обратной связи с пользователем и оповещения пользователей облегчают поддержку различных этапов жизненного цикла информационной системы. Рассмотрен набор метафор – элементов определения информационных структур - элементов пользовательского интерфейса высокого уровня - позволяющих определять, описывать и реализовывать информационные системы.

• Рассмотрены основные черты разработанного и реализованного комплекса программных средств, предоставляющего следующие возможности в рамках сформулированной модели информационной системы:

1. Гибкий и простой механизм поддержки взаимодействия между HTTP-сервером и данными в табличном представлении.

2. Межплатформенную переносимость. Форматы хранения шаблонов текстовых документов и представления табличных данных не зависят от выбора операционной системы. Языковый процессор шаблонов документов так же является переносимым.

3. Расширяемость множества результирующих документов за счет изменения как непосредственно табличных данных, так и множества шаблонов документов.

На основе рассмотренных модели информационно-справочной системы и инструментального средства был оформлен ряд промежуточных проектов в виде мини-WWW - сайтов, опубликованных в Internet.

356 AI and Education Литература [T.Berners-Lee, D. Connoly, 1995] T.Berners-Lee MIT/W3C, D. Connoly. RFC 1866, Hypertext Markup Language – 2.0, November 1995, Network Working Group.

[Wurman Richard Soul, 1996] Wurman Richard Soul. Information Architects. 1996, Graphis Press Corp. ISBN 3-85709-458-[Леонтьев А. Н., 1981] Леонтьев А. Н. Проблемы развития психики. 3-4 изд. М., Изд-во МГУ, 1981.

Информация об авторе Андрей Донченко - Bonus Technology Inc., Ph.D., Project Manager/Team Leader; 86D Bozhenko Str., Kyiv, Ukraine, e-mail: andriy.donchenko@gmail.com FOCUSING ON DECISION MAKING IN NEW ESP CURRICULUM FOR UKRAINIAN STUDENTS Elena Baranova, Elena Blyznyukova Abstract: The article deals with the problem of training students to become professionals with job-oriented competences which include general competences, capacity for autonomous learning, and ability to make decisions in the field areas. The main focus of the article is Ukrainian new ESP curriculum that takes decision making as one of the most necessary pragmatic competences and study skills.

Keywords: English for specific purposes (ESP) curriculum, a decision-making model, problem-based learning Introduction One of the defining features of the modern field of second language teaching for specialists is its crossdisciplinary nature. Growing out of linguistics and psychology, it has been stimulated by theoretical concepts developed in fields such as mother tongue education (process approaches to teaching), discourse analysis (genre theory), artificial intelligence (schema theory) and subject learning (job-related language learning).

A rich area of research, one that is particularly relevant to issues of language learning and teaching specialists is that of cognitive science. This area has been linked to the study of language learner strategies [Rubin,1981].

Another aspect of this field with potentially great relevance is the modeling of "expert systems" and processes of decision-making.

Problem Identification Newly developed Ukrainian ESP (English for specific purposes) curriculum [ESP National Curriculum, 2005] is designed to explore this relevance by combining these areas: looking at the topic of learner strategies through the lens of a decision-making model.

In this article we are making an attempt to show how updated ESP curriculum is going to meet the requirements to specialists training.

Theoretical Analysis of the Problem and Personal Observations First, we are summarizing a complex of psychological activities that are necessary for decision making. Then we are describing learner strategies as they have evolved over the past two decades. And finally we are framing the learner strategy concept in terms of a decision-making model, relating it to work on teacher decision-making, XII-th International Conference "Knowledge - Dialogue - Solution" pointing out some similarities between teacher and learner decision-making, and highlighting the negotiated nature of decision-making in classroom language learning.

The new curriculum has been developed with the approval of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine:

- as a response to international developments;

- in order to meet the language needs of university students across a range of discipline areas;

- to provide benchmarks for teachers and students in line with the identified levels;

- to provide a standardized basis for course and syllabus design by teachers of English at the faculty level in universities throughout Ukraine.

An enlarged Europe has led to radical changes in education. The creation of the European Higher Education Area by 2010 [Bologna, 1999] sets challenging tasks in terms of greater mobility for students, more effective international communication, better access to information and deeper mutual understanding.

The ESP curriculum was designed to give students an opportunity to develop the competences and strategies needed to function effectively in the study process and in the professional situations they encounter. As a result of new courses higher levels of student language proficiency and their decision making skills will facilitate individual mobility and competitiveness in the job market. So, it is viewed as important to discuss why decision making is important in training career-oriented students.

After exploring the pitfalls of decision making in learning processes students may feel that good decisions are impossible before they become experienced specialists. Yet major decisions must be made – about jobs selection, family/career choice, where to live, what to do with money or how to make money in the first place.

However, the trainers’ task is to help students discover whether a decision is good or bad only after they make it and begin to see its consequences. In many cases a person never knows whether his choice is the right one until he takes over the responsibility and uses hand-on experience. If you decide that it is too early to take a risk, you can only guess what career opportunities would have been like if you had accepted the challenge.

A teacher can never guarantee good decisions, but he can guarantee a useful procedure that can increase students’ chances of doing better. This procedure is described in the newly developed curriculum that gives recommendations on how to teach English for specific purposes (ESP). Not only does the curriculum give levels and language skills descriptions, but also it characterizes study skills as students’ pragmatic competence.

Decision making turns out to be one of the most important study skills for future specialists.

Decision making process a complex of psychological activities:

• Selecting the most important changes to make • Evaluating the relative importance of different options • Selecting between good options • Choosing between options by projecting likely outcomes • Weighing the pros and cons of a decision • Analyzing the pressures for and against change • Looking at a decision from all points of view • Seeing whether a change is worth making In the updated Ukrainian ESP curriculum it is expected that mentioned above psychological activities should be performed within problem-based learning (PBL).

For the first time the focus on decision making skills has been made in the frame of communicative approach towards language learning to train field specialists.

The template for skills development is based on problem-based learning which is taken as an instructional method characterized by the use of “real world” problems as a context for students to learn critical thinking and problem-solving skills and acquire knowledge of the essential concepts of the job-related course.

358 AI and Education By using case-studies within PBL students obtain life-long learning skills which include the ability to find and use appropriate learning resources and develop appropriate strategies. Such approach has proved to be the most effective and constructive for the fast changing social economic situation in Ukraine.

New ESP curriculum that is being currently implemented for teaching English to “field students”, is designed to develop and sustain a set of strategies that enable students to make language decisions in professionallyoriented situations.

However, the complexity of strategy use is becoming more apparent. It has become clear that there are different strategies characteristic not only of different learners, but also of the same learner at different levels, with different language learning goals, engaged in the use of different skills, and so on. As a result of this growing realization, research began on the factors affecting the choice of strategies, rather than just the strategies themselves. This research is summarized by Oxford [Oxford, 1989]. Strategy choice was found to be related to the language being learned, the learning goals, the level of learning (or proficiency of the learner), the learner's self-awareness, age, and sex. Affective variables have been found to play a role: the attitudes, motivational level, and motivational orientation. Personality characteristics play a role as well-learning styles, learning experiences, and methods-as doe’s cultural background (national origin or ethnicity).

Another important factor was investigated by Wenden [Wenden, 1986] with the notion of learner beliefs.

The connection was made between a learner's beliefs about language learning and the types of strategies that he or she uses. In addition to these longer term and stable characteristics, there are also a number of short-term factors which play a role in strategy choice: the requirements in the current communication or task in the specific situation of language use (and this of course includes the method by which the researcher attempts to elicit a learner's strategies).

This growing appreciation for the complexity of the issue of learning strategies and the factors that play a role in their use makes it increasingly apparent that a classification and taxonomy of strategies does not adequately represent the intricate ways in which strategies are chosen and used. One of the consequences, or costs, of developing such a classification is that the learner strategies are removed from the context in which they occur.

They are categorized and given labels which make sense to the researcher, i.e. explicitly relating strategies which are seen as falling into the same paradigmatic class or category. However such a categorization is not necessarily one which makes sense to the learner, nor one that is used by the learner for accessing possibilities or weighing and making choices about what to do. Such a classification does not give us a sense of why a learner uses a particular type of strategy at a particular time, how this strategies fits with other strategies that are being used, and how the strategy is related to the learner's evolving planning process and beliefs, and how it is evaluated and feeds into further strategy choices.

To determine how and when the learner uses certain strategies, we need to look for relationships among them which are relevant to the learner: those strategies which are considered by the learner to be sub-strategies of others (i.e., the means to achieving others), and those which are related, from the learner's perspective, by patterns of sequencing (i.e., those which naturally stimulate or follow others).

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 80 | 81 ||



© 2011 www.dissers.ru - «Бесплатная электронная библиотека»

Материалы этого сайта размещены для ознакомления, все права принадлежат их авторам.
Если Вы не согласны с тем, что Ваш материал размещён на этом сайте, пожалуйста, напишите нам, мы в течении 1-2 рабочих дней удалим его.