The relation of similarity aggregates the similar models in new internally determined information model in the memory of the information witness.
The aggregation may cause the generating the new information activity, which may be resolved not only in the environment around the information witness. The possibility of self-reflection may cause the generating the new information models in his memory without any external influence and so on.
This process of aggregation and generation of new models is not limited.
The (information) models internally generated via self-reflection are called "mental (information) models" of the information witness.
Resolving the Information Expectation Because of the existing of the information expectation, i.e. the existing of the secondary information activity, the Information Witness "expects" to combine the information valences with any others.
The combining the valences of the information expectation with some others is called resolving the information expectation.
Let "n" is the number of free valences in an information expectation. After the contact some of them are combined as well as the others are not. The new valences, which are generated by the contact, do not belong to the information expectation before contact. They may form new information expectation but the basis for our reasoning will be the starting information expectation.
The normalized by "n" number D' of the not combined valences is called degree of discrepancy (D) of the incoming reflection to the information expectation, i.e.
26 Philosophy and Methodology of Informatics D' D = n The normalized by "n" number C' of the combined valences is called degree of combining (C) of the incoming reflection to the information expectation, i.e.
C' C = n There exists the equation: C + D = 1.
From point of view of given expectation for contact the number of free valences is fixed. After the contact, as a result of reflection, some of the free valences of the entity may be combined with any new (internal or external) valences. Of course, new free valences may occur. The number "n" varies in the process of interaction. Every contact may change it.
The more valences of the information expectation have been resolved, the more qualitative is the incoming information and vice versa.
The difference A between normalized number C of resolved valences and normalized number D of not resolved valences of the information expectation is called adequacy of the reflection to the information expectation, i.e.
A = C – D It is easy to see that the values of adequacy A are in the interval [-1,1].
Infos The resolving of the information activity is a goal of the information witness.
This goal may be achieved by the establishment and providing (information) contacts and interaction.
The entity, which has possibility for:
- (primary) activity for external interaction;
- information reflection and information memory, i.e. possibility for collecting the information;
- information self-reflection, i.e. possibility for generating "secondary information";
- information expectation i.e. the (secondary) information activity for internal or external contact - information modeling and resolving the information expectation is called Infos.
Further Investigation in the Theory of Infos What gives us the concept “Infos” At the fist place, this is the common approach for investigating the natural and artificial information agents.
In other hand, this is the set of common characteristics which are basic for all entities, which we may classify to the category of the Infos.
And, at the end, this is a common philosophical basis for understanding the information subjects.
Our main goal is to provoke the scientists to continue the research in this important area and to make the next step.
The concept "Infos" is basic for the General Information Theory [Markov et al. 2003a]. Its definition is only the starting point for further investigations and building the Infos Theory.
The variety of types of Infoses in the real world needs to be investigated and classified in the future research. At the first step, we may propose that may be at least two main types of Infoses exist:
- infogens - the natural creatures;
- infotrons - the artificial creatures.
Also, the Infos Theory needs to give answers to many other very important questions, such as:
- What is the nature of the activity of the Infos - What is the difference between the living level of the Infos and the non-living one - Is it true that the boundary between non-living and living entities is self-reflection and internal activity for satisfying the secondary (information) possibilities for internal or external contact - Etc.
XII-th International Conference "Knowledge - Dialogue - Solution" It is impossible to answer to all questions in a single article. We may make only the next little step. This is the aim of the present paper.
The concept "Information Model" (IM) is fundamental for the Informatics. There exist many approaches to define this concept. As a rule, every definition is based on those concepts, which the concrete scientific paradigm had given. Every new theoretical approach needs to redefine the concepts it uses in the frame of the corresponded to it new paradigm. This way in different paradigms we may have different definitions of the given concepts [Popper, 1968].
There exists a long list of names of scientists who worked to define more precisely the concept "Model" (and respectively - the information model). It contains the names of N.Wiener and A.Rosenblueth [Rosenblueth, Wiener, 1945], V.M.Glushkov [Glushkov, 1986], M.W.Wartofsky [Wartofsky, 1979] and many others.
For long period, the concept "Information model" has been used to denote one of the main activities in using the computer technique. May be, now it is the most popular understanding of it and many scientists are satisfied of the meaning it contains.
Nevertheless, the definition of the concept of information model may and need to be extended to cover the new scientific paradigms, which come from the current Informatics. This is the goal of the Theory of the Infos.
Presented above so simple and clear definition of the concept "information model" has very great impact on GIT and key role for definition and explanation of all subjective information phenomena in the world. In addition, it may be used as a base concept in the area of Artificial Intelligence research.
The information models initiated inside the Infos form subjective information set. Inside his information set, the Infos can build "information spaces". The information space of the Infos is dynamic as a structure and content.
When a new information model is generated the Infos compares it with the information models from context and with the information expectation. This is the starting point for the processes of reasoning.
However, the information modeling is only the first part of the complex process of decision making in usual practical situations. The decision making is at least two-level process:
- Collecting information models for given entity in one resulting entity;
- Analyzing and knowledge discovery on the base of given goal, which results aimed to be used for predicting of any characteristics of the modeled entity.
In everyday language, the concept "Information modeling" is assumed to denote the whole chain of phases of decision making, which we make to solve the problem [Gladun, 1994].
Theory of Inforaction Information Objects When the Infos interact with the entities around in the environment, there exist at least two cases of reverberation:
- the contacts and interaction are casual and all reflections in the Infos as well as in the entities have casual origin;
- the contacts and interactions are determined by the information activity of the Infos.
In the both cases, the contacted entity may reflect any information model from Infos. The possibility for reflection of the information model is greater in the second case.
An entity, in which one or more information models are reflected, is called "information object".
The information objects can have different properties depending on:
- the kind of influence over the entities - by ordering in space and time, by partial or full modifying, etc., - the way of influence over the entities - by direct or by indirect influence of the Infos on the object, - the way of development in time - static or dynamic, etc.
It clear, the Infoses are information objects.
28 Philosophy and Methodology of Informatics Information Operations The information is kind of reflection. Therefore, the only way one to operate with information is to operate with the entity it contains. Every influence on the entity may cause any internal changes in it and this way may change the information already reflected. Another type of influence is to change the location of entity or to provoke any contact between given entity and any other.
The influence over the information object is called "information operation".
The information operations may be of two main types:
- the Infos internal operations with the sub-entities that contain information, - external operations with the information objects that contain information.
Internal Operations The internal operations with the subentities closely depend of the Infos possibilities for self-reflection and internal interaction of its subentities.
The self-reflection (self-change) of the Infos leads to the creating of new relationships (and corresponding entities) in it. These are subjectively defined relationships, or shortly - subjective relationships. When they are reflected in the memory of the Infos they initiate information model too, but on a higher level. These high-level information models may have not real relationships and real entities that correspond to them.
The possibility for creating the relationships of similarity is a basis for realizing such very high level operations as "comparing elements or substructures of the information models", "searching given substructure or element pattern in the part or in the whole structure of the information model", etc.
It is clear, the Infos is built by entities some of which may be also Infoses, but on the lowest levels. So, the internal operations are determined by the concrete internal level but from the point of view of the higher levels, they are assumed as external operations. Because of this, we will concentrate out attention on the second type of operations.
External Operations The external operations with information objects may be differed in two main subtypes — basic and service operations.
There are two "basic information operations" which are called I-operations:
- I-reflection (reflecting the information object by the Infos, i.e. the origination of a relevant information model in the memory of the Infos).
- I-realisation (creating the information object by the Infos);
In the process of its activity, the Infos reflects (perceives) information from the environment (entities O i=1,2...) by i, proper subentities (sensitive to video, acoustic, tactile, etc. influences) called "receptors" R (i=1,2...).
i Consequently, the Infos may receive some information models. This subjective reflection is called "I-reflection".
When necessary, the Infos can materialize (realize) in its environment (entities O', i=1,2...) some of the j information models, which are in his memory, using some sub-entities called "effectors" M (j=1,2...).
j Consequently, new or modified already existing entities reflect information, relevant to these information models.
This subjective realization is called "I-realization".
There are several operations, which can be realized with the information objects: transfer in space and time, destroying, copying, composition, decomposition, etc. Because of the activity of the Infoses, these operations are different from other events in reality. In this case, the Infos determined operations with information objects are called "service information operations".
For example, some of the very high-level service operations are based on the external influence on the information object to change any existing reflection: including and removing an element in and from the structure;
copying or moving substructures from one place to an other; building new structure using as a basis one or several others; composing or decomposing of elements or substructures; etc.
XII-th International Conference "Knowledge - Dialogue - Solution" Information Processes Let "O" is a set of real information objects and "M" is a set of information models.
We will consider every set of real information objects as an information object, if the opposite is not stated.
Every set of information models we consider as information model.
The information operations are:
- the function r: O M. (I-reflection) - the function e: M O. (I-realization) - the function s: O O between two sets of information objects, O and O may be coincidental (service d r d r operation).
Let t, t,..,t are information operations. The consequence of information operations P, created using the 1 2 n composition, i.e.
P = t ° t ° …° t 1 2 n is called "information process".
In particularly an information process can include only one operation.
It is clear, the composition of two or more I-reflections as well as the composition of two or more I-realizations are not allowed.
Information Contact If an information model from the Infos is reflected in another entity, there exist possibility, during the "a posterior" interactions of the given entity with another Infos, to transfer this reflection in it. This way an information model may be transferred from the Infos to another.
If the second Infos has already established information expectation, the incoming reflection will be perceptible for the Infos. The information expectation will be resolved in some degree and the incoming information model and information in it will be received by the second Infos.
Let S and S are Infoses and O is an arbitrary entity.
Материалы этого сайта размещены для ознакомления, все права принадлежат их авторам.
Если Вы не согласны с тем, что Ваш материал размещён на этом сайте, пожалуйста, напишите нам, мы в течении 1-2 рабочих дней удалим его.