The reflection in the recipient represents both the relationships and the sub-entities of the source. From other point of view, the relationships build up and present the entities. Because of this, the reflected relationships are the essence of the reflection. In other words, iff there exist reflection evidence than the reflection of the forming relationship may be considered as "information" for reflected entity. Therefore, in the sense that the evidence exists to point what relationship (between what entities) is reflected and where it is done, we may say "The information is reflected relationship".
So, the reflection of the first entity in the second one is “information” for the first entity if there is corresponded reflection evidence. The generalization of this idea leads to assertion that every reflection can be considered as information, iff there exists corresponding reflection evidence.
22 Philosophy and Methodology of Informatics General Structure of Information The entities and theirs relationships form space hierarchies. Every entity contains all entities of its low levels.
In this sense, we can say that every relationship contains in itself the relationships of low levels of the entity.
As reflected relationship, the Information is reflected space hierarchy of all relationships of this one. From this point of view, we can say the general structure of information reflects general structure of real relationships.
The information of one level contains space hierarchy of information for low levels. Therefore, the main idea is:
The General Structure of Information is a Space Hierarchy.
Information Elements and Information Memory The triple i = (source, recipient : evidence) defines concrete (single) information element. The triple “i” is called “information relationship”.
The (information) memory of the entity is the set of all information elements, which are reflected in the entity.
It is clear, from point of view of the period of existing of the corresponded reflections; the entity memory may be more temporal or more permanent.
Information Spaces and Information Environment The information elements are real reflections in the entities and they exist in the real world. This means that for every contact or interaction as well as for every single entity or set of entities the corresponded sets of information elements may exist.
The set of information elements, which is defined by:
- single source and single recipient, is called single information space;
- many sources and single recipient, is called common information space;
- single source and many recipients, is called single information environment, which contains many information spaces;
- many sources and many recipients, is called common information environment.
Types of the Information The information is a result from the interaction. It is a kind of the reflection. Therefore, the information has the corresponding properties.
Especially, we have primary interaction, secondary (transitive) interaction, self-interaction etc.
This way, there exist corresponding types of the reflection and the main types of information are:
- direct information;
- transitive information;
- transitive self-information;
- interactive direct information;
- interactive transitive information;
- interactive transitive self-information.
From other point of view, the interaction may be provided on different levels of the structure of the entities.
Therefore, we may talk about corresponded types of information.
The types of information memories as well as the structures of the information environments define corresponded types of information, too.
XII-th International Conference "Knowledge - Dialogue - Solution" Further Investigation in the Theory of Information The further investigation and development of the Theory of Information may be directed towards investigation the types and characteristic of information in correspondence with the specific of entities and relationships as well as characteristics of the environment.
Contacts and Interactions need to be investigated according different types of entities.
The philosophical support is very important so the research need to take in account the "Theory of reverberation" [Pavlov, 1987] as well as the development and extending of ideas about reflection and self-reflection given in this paper.
The main place needs to take the investigation of the types and possible interconnections of the basic information triple i = (source, recipient: evidence) as well as the types and the characteristics of the direct, transitive, and interactive information and self-information based of the hypothesis about the general structure of information.
Special attention needs to be paid on the basic types of information in closely correspondence of type of interaction and reflection as well as the different levels of the structure of the entities.
As we have seen, the types and the characteristics of the information memories, the information spaces as well as the information environments are another main theme of this theory.
Theory of Infos The genesis of the concept of Infos started from the understanding that the concept "Information Subject" is perceived as human characteristic. It is clear that in the nature there exist many creatures which may be classified to this category. To exclude the misunderstandings we decide to introduce new word to denote all possessors of the characteristics of the Information Subject.
This word is "Infos".
Activity and Information Expectation Every forming relationship as well as every relationship unites the entities and this way it satisfies some theirs possibilities for building the relationship by establishing the contact. In other words, for creating the forming relationship we need:
- entities, from which the new entity is able to built;
- possibilities of the entities for establishing the contact by satisfying of which the forming relationship may be originated.
The forming relationship is the aggregate of the satisfied possibilities for establishing the contact.
It is clear that after establishing the relationship we may have any of two cases:
1) all possibilities of the entities for establishing the contact are satisfied by such possibilities of other entities;
2) there are any free possibilities after finishing the establishment of the new relationship - on the low levels of the entity or, if it is a new entity, on the level of the whole entity. Disintegration of the whole entity or any its part may generate any possibilities too.
In the second case, the entity has any "free valences", which needs to be satisfied by corresponded contacts with other entities. We may say the entity has activity generated by the free possibilities for establishing the contacts with the entities from the environment.
The process of interaction is satisfying the possibilities for contact of the entities. From point of view of the entity, the interaction may be external or internal.
During the interaction given entity may be destroyed partially or entirely and only several but not all parts of the destroyed entity may be integrated in the new entity. This means that there exist both constructive and destructive processes in the process of interaction between entities. The determination of the type of the interaction depends on the point of view of given entity. The interaction dialectically contains constructive and destructive sub-processes.
If the entity is a complex, it is possible for it to have an opportunity of self-reflection. In such case, it is able to reflect any reflection, which has been already reflected in it. In this case, because of the new internal changes (self-reflection) the entity may obtain any new "secondary activity".
24 Philosophy and Methodology of Informatics The secondary activity is closely connected to the structural level of the entity, which correspond to the level of the self-reflection. This way the secondary activity may be satisfied by internal or external entity from point of view of the given entity. In other words, the resolving of the secondary activity may be internal or external.
During the establishment of the information relationship it is possible to be generated any secondary free activity (possibilities on the low levels of the entity or on the level of the whole entity) which needs to be satisfied by corresponded contacts with other entities.
The secondary activity generated by the information relationship is called "information activity”.
On given level of complexity of the entities a new quality becomes — the existence of self-reflection and internal activity based on the main possibilities for contact of the sub-entities as well as based on the new (secondary) possibilities created after internal self-reflection.
The internal activity may be resolved by:
- the internal changes which lead to partial internal disintegration of the sub-entities and theirs a posterior internal integration in the new structures;
- the external influence on the environment.
The internal changes may lead to removing of some sub-entities if they have no possibilities for integration with the others, i.e. if they have no free valences to be resolved in the process of integration.
The external influence is the most important. The impact on the entities around the entity is the way to resolve its activity. The destroying of the external entities and including the appropriate theirs parts in itself is the main means to exist and satisfy the free valences.
One special kind of activity is the information one. We assume that the secondary activity needs to be resolved by relevant to the information valences corresponded opposite (information) valences which need to be of the same genesis, i.e. generated by any information relationship. So, not every entity may be used for resolving the secondary activity.
This way, the entity expects a special kind of (information) contacts and (information) interaction for resolving the information activity. Because of this the information activity is called “information expectation”.
Information Witness Let remember the special case from above when the third entity contains reflections of the first entity received by both two different ways:
1) by transitive impact of the first entity on the third one through the second entity, 2) by impact of the first entity on the third one which is different from the transitive one, i.e. it can be direct impact or transitive impact through another entity (-ies).
In this case the third entity became as an external relationship between first entity and its reflection in the second entity — it became as “reflection evidence” of this relationship.
In addition, if during establishing the information relationship i = (source, recipient: evidence) in the reflection evidence is generated information expectation (activity) it is called "information witness".
As the information witness is more complex entity so the information relationship may be more complex. In addition, let remark that the complex reflection is time-depended process. In other hand, the memory and actual context determine the result of the complex reflection.
Information is a Model As Marx Wartofsky remarks, the concept "model" has been used for denotation of the very large class of phenomena: mechanical, theoretical, linguistic, etc. constructions. He gave a good definition of the model relation and made clear the main characteristics of the model [Wartofsky, 1979]. This definition is as follow:
The model relation is triple M:
M: (S, x, y) where "S" is subject for whom "x" represents "y". In other words only in this relation and only for the subject "S" the entity "x" is a model of the entity "y".
As we point above, the interaction between two entities is a specific theirs relationship. If there exist information witness (W) of the interaction between two entities as well as of the existence of the information about the first XII-th International Conference "Knowledge - Dialogue - Solution" entity in the second entity, W became as subject for whom the information in the second entity represents the first one. In other words, there exists relation M: (W, I, A), BA BA where "A" and "B" are entities, and the W is the information witness, which proofs that the assertion "I B is BA BA information in B for A" is true.
In the relation (W, I, A) the information I is a model of A.
BA BA BA Information Model The entities of the world interact continuously in the time. It is possible, after any interaction one another may be realized. In this case, the changes received by any entity, during the first interaction, may be reflected by the new entity. This means the secondary (transitive, external) reflection exists. The chain of the transitive reflections is not limited.
Let A, B and C are entities; A and B interact and after that B interacts with C. If there exist the relations:
- M : (W, I, A), where W is the information witness, which proofs that the assertion BA BA BA BA "I B is information in B for A" is true, BA - M : (W, I, B), where W is the information witness, which proofs that the assertion CB CB CB CB "I C is information in C for B" is true, CB and if M : (W, I, A), where W is the information witness, which proofs that the assertion "I C C(B)A C(B)A C(B)A C(B)A C(B)A is information in C for information in B for A" is true.
In such case, from point of view of the W the information I is a model of A. In other hand, because of C(B)A C(B)A transitive reflection, I is created as reflection of the I but not directly of A.
C(B)A BA This means that I is a model of the information in B for A.
C(B)A In other words the I is an information model in C for A.
C(B)A The collecting of information models for given entity in one resulting entity may exist as a result of the process of interaction between entities. Such process is in the base of the Information modeling.
If an information model IM contains information for (reflected from) the two source information models IM and IM 1 than the source information models are "similar" in the sense of the model IM.
The similarity of the information models causes the establishing the relation of aggregation between them.
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