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The Structure of Monism Recognizing the uniqueness of material reality and simultaneously, the extension of determinism (including the ring version,) inevitably, we come to a special comprehension of monism. It is necessary to consider monism as not so all-encompassing. The principle conclusion is that reality is certainly the only one, but it is rather polyhedral and multistage. That is, it has independent and intricate subdivisions interacting with one another whose properties are discovered only under fixed angles, and only with fixed observation through fixed techniques. So in order to have a common view about the complexity of reality, it is necessary to create a synthesis of every possible private submissions. One must actually look into each edge, to climb through each stage, and then to combine all the material into a unified image. This would be a grandiose and majestic goal for the advanced materialist-monist! A rigorous methodological undertaking of such scope should take materialism into all the topical niches of philosophical research, and should engender rigorous participation in the investigation of all controversies. Moreover, materialism should be at the head of all philosophical processes, collecting and synthesizing the teachings of all philosophical schools.

How does philosophy and science actually develop An interested and enthusiastic experimenter always studies a subject under a chosen point of view. As a rule, he approaches a problem with quite a fixed world outlook and a pre-conception, which introduces a bias. Occasionally the research itself has its fixed pragmatic purpose. So everybody is free to accept or reject the results, which have an obviously subjective character. At times, one subjective analysis becomes fashionable, sometimes another. Accordingly, the subject under study presents one aspect or another, depending on the point of view. But it is certainly necessary to remember that each aspect is one-sided and narrow.

The only advantage in this the opportunity to study a subject from many perspectives, choosing an interesting aspect, an interesting angle that reveals something of its attributes. Also as a rule, the many exploratory platforms correspond to the many properties of the subject under study. An acquaintance with all these platforms can lead to a broader understanding of the subject.

It is necessary to notice, that in spite of all the multitudes of subjective factors, only the interpretations-ideas, which conform to real-life natural factors, formed as we now know, by the conforming substantial causative rings, keeps it as common knowledge.

As time passes, if no barriers are erected, all the main operational factors are revealed by the research of experts. As an example, it is possible to refer to great historic resources for philosophic research. In ancient Greece, all the principal directions in the development of thought have already been explored and are valid even to this day.

It should be understood that behind each natural factor advanced by this or that scientific school, stands a special causative ring which allows the production of a sensible methodological attitude towards its doctrines and teachings. As each of these causative rings is substantial, it is necessary to estimate the usefulness of their research. However as every causative ring is local and is limited in space, time and other aspects, it is also necessary to recognize the restricted character, of applicability of its results,; to reject the claims of universality by its adherents.

To constitute a clear idea of the concept of polyhedral monism, despite the correlation noted above, it is necessary to distinguish the real, immanently inherent properties of natural things (and causative rings disappearing behind them) from the separate properties identified in private research in the present period. Here, we’ll need the well-known methodology of Kant and his concept of the "thing in itself" and of "phenomenon". Moreover, it should be understood that only through ring determinism and polyhedral monism can we identify the clear beauty revealed in the concepts of this great philosopher.

About the Mind-Body Problem It is clear that the brain is not only for man, but also for the major class of animals. However, as to mind, animals either don’t have it, or have a primitive type of it. In reflection and in the structural organization of the brain, it would appear that man is heir to one that is a little more complex. It suggests that for the existence and the activities of the mind, a special segment of the brain takes responsibility, or more precisely, there is a special foundation or device in man's brain, which animals do not have.

Within the framework of the concept of ring determinism the availability of a special material foundation straightly indicates the existence of a special closed causative circuit in the body, and the brain responsible for it. This closed (self-contained) causative circuit allows the existence and function of the brain (to be clear, we shall call it the "mindbase") in the capacity of a separate independent factor, which is the phenomenon of mind. Mindbase is closed on itself in a causative attitude, that allows it (and to the mind as an integral attribute,) to execute independent activity. Apparently, that between the physical-chemical processes in the mindbase and mental acts of mind there is an unambiguous correspondence: a mental experience constantly accompanies a physical process and visa–versa. It is an inseparable system. However, the represented members of this system, existing in different worlds, are like the two parts of an iceberg: above water and below. The same happens with the mindbase. It exists in two worlds:

internal (that is obviously represented in the mental field) and external (that is, available for research by an external observer).

Only subjectivists have problems understanding the nature of an external world. Materialists consider the external world as an initial reality; as a postulate. Frequently, they actually refer to this field as the whole world, belittling an inner life and connected with it, the subjective as something secondary and insignificant. As to the nature of the inner life, no one had any sensible comprehension of it including materialists and scientists.

As a rule, an inner life is understood as a spiritual world. It is represented to the person as the result of introspection. There have been attempts to contrast it to the external world, surrounding a person. To our mind, it is absolutely absurd that comparisons are made between things so different. To seriously compare different things, it is necessary to search for one general substantial plane. For example, it is possible give myself a headache attempting to compare directly such things as for instance, the condition of My bank account and Your desire to receive some money. The absurdity of such direct comparison is obvious to any serious person. Solely I and You may be compared in this situation as material bodies (and members of a society). And the result of our informational-material interaction may be a certain financial exchange process.

It will reduce of my bank account and will satisfy your above-mentioned normal desire. That is the only way! A reasonable answer can only be provided by ring determinism. Within its framework it is seen, that the birth of each new independent (autonomous) natural foundation is accompanied and ensured by the linking of a special causative circuit. Thus, it is necessary to underline especially, it is not only a new material body that was born. Actually the new small original world came into the large world, in a fixed part of space, organized by a special mode of causative attitude, having the property of closure, isolation. The space of this world represents a special field in which its own specific laws act and other specific properties appear. The situation here is under a special causative supervisory control that gives grounds to consider this part of the world as a special causative zone. This zone can be specifically called an inner life. An inner life is limited by its own framework and has its own special internal organization.

Certainly, any such inner life does not completely negate the general properties and regularities of then external world. It only partially substitutes and supplements them by its own. For example, in an army, which to a certain extent is an isolated structure, people live both according to universal civil rules, and according to some specific army regulations.

However the element of causative independence often allows an inner life to flexibly build relations with an external world: somewhere negating it, and somewhere associating with it. The fact of a definite causative independence of an inner life from the external inevitably generates the phenomenon of ontological equality of rights of these two independent worlds. And these are not jokes any more. It demands a global attitude from philosophy, and a completely different methodological approach, devoid of the former ignorance. The tricks of reductionists and eliminativists won’t pass muster anymore. An inner life, which is as material as an external one, can’t be neglected. It is a quite severe material reality having quite objective and special properties.

As we have started on the ontological equality of rights of two worlds, it is necessary to take the next step: to recognize the legal equality of claims and positions of both the worlds in connection with a number of actual things or events. Now we’ve come up to the situation when it is not enough only to be guided by lightening and interpreting this or that phenomenon from the position of two different worlds. Both views are necessary for obtaining a rigorous pattern of reality: from within and without. It inevitably results in a certain parallel-complementary principle of knowledge, in the concept of polyhedral monism.

Two different worlds provide different ways of investigating things and events: mental on the part of the inner life and physical + behavioral on the part of the external world. These ways used in the sovereign worlds, apparently, also are sovereign. Phenomena and the processes existing in the inner life mindbase can be investigated from within by means of feeling, introspection, and self-consciousness. From without, it is investigated through physiological methods and the analysis of function and behavior.

In attempts at the solution of the notorious mind-body problem the external and internal ways of investigation, have been pushed together in order to prove their inequality. But within the framework of our concept, equality of rights of these methods is understood as the basic principle. For the benefit of this principle, such arguments can be adduced as same phenomena in the brain can be explored with equal success in two different ways: mental, through a part of the mind and mindbase, and by means of physiological influences on the part of an external observer. The analogy to an iceberg arises again: it also may be actuated by the influences of different spheres: currents in air and the flow of water. The physiological way of researching the brain is not advanced enough to allow an exact substitution of mental phenomena, but it is, we think, only a matter of time.

The sharp dispute begs a question: to what laws are the same processes in a brain subject Are they mental-logical or physiological Apparently, physiological laws constitute the necessary initial base for the formation of any biological and mental process. However the complicated schemes formed in a brain during a long adaptive evolutionary period, although consisting of primitive elements, correspond to special aims and are organized in such a manner that they may correlate with regularities of the mental processes. On the surface, here occurs the same bioelectrical current on a neural network. But this network is very artfully organized. The special physical schemes adequate to the logical circuits of reason here prevail.

Today, engineering and radio electronics have advanced to such a level that it is possible to create devices having rather broad functionality (including – computer software products). The logic of their operation is also various, sometimes it copies some functions of the human body.

Though at the base of all processes, elementary physiological laws operate. It is necessary to recognize, that in the systemic plan, everything there is subordinated to the special logic of an executed problem (functionality). In other words, each new systemic superstructure allows this random heap of elements to carry out the new specific procedures contained there as potential. In our opinion, here is a full analogy with the mind-body problem.


Many problems, touched on here, require special detailed research. Partially such research and the use of the concepts of ring determinism and polyhedral monism in philosophy have been stated by the author in the Russian language in the Russian press [3,4,5] and in the Russian philosophical Internet - magazine [6]. In the near future the author intends to place the materials on this problem also in English-speaking sources.

REFERENCES (All in Russian) [1] Калмыков Р.Б.: 1994, Между субъективизмом и объективизмом: в поисках «золотой середины», С.277-283, Философские исследования, №2, Москва.

[2] Калмыков Р.Б.: 1995, Анатомия свободы, Ивановский государственный университет, Иваново.

[3] Калмыков Р.Б.: 2001, К проблеме активизации образного начала в философском мышлении, С.48-58, Вестник научно-промышленного общества, Выпуск 2, изд-во АЛЕВ-В, Москва.

[4] Калмыков Р.Б.: 2002, Принципиальная роль исходного специфического личностного поля человека в формировании феноменов переживаемого им мира, С.6372, Вестник научно-промышленного общества, Выпуск 3, изд-во АЛЕВ-В, Москва.

[5] Калмыков Р.Б.: 2002, О содержании человеческого переживания, С.100-128, Вестник научно-промышленного общества, Выпуск 4, изд-во АЛЕВ-В, Москва.

[6] Калмыков Р.Б.: 2001, Философское знание: время собирать камни.

http://piramyd.express.ru/disput/kalmykov/kalmykov.htm Ravil B.Kalmykov E-mail: Ravil8@yandex.ru Telephone: +Fax: +70932230811 (for Ravil B.Kalmykov) Address: 153012 RUSSIA, Ivanovo, Proletarskaya Street, 44, apt 25.

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