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The program DPaint enables us to create gradients, draw in anti-alias mode, change the palette, make "stencils", and transform any group of pixels into a "brush." It also allows special brush techniques "smooth" and "smear," features that are also found on Adobe Photoshop. The maximum number of colors we can work with is 256, which makes it satisfactory program for altering GIF images.

Other two programs Personal Paint and Photogenics had similar characteristics. Thus I will not dwell on them.

Fourth International Conference I.TECH 2006 3. Free Graphics Design Software Some significant position is occupied by graphics editors considered as free software. One can mention here Paint.NET GIMP.

Paint.NET [2] is a project developed at Washington State University and mentored by Microsoft. It is a free graphics editing program for use on Windows XP and 2000 based operating systems, with the source freely available for download. It is programmed in C# and is released under the open source MIT License. Paint.NET is the unofficial successor to the older Microsoft Paint graphics program.

Graphics editors GIMP [3] deserve more particular attention. At the same time I am going to draw up some comparison of its abilities with those of Adobe Photoshop. The GNU Image Manipulation Program or The GIMP is a bitmap graphics editor and also has some support for vector graphics. The project was started in 1995 by Spencer Kimball and Peter Mattis and is now maintained by a group of volunteers; it is licensed under the GNU General Public License.

Overview GIMP originally stood for General Image Manipulation Program; in 1997, the name was changed to GNU Image Manipulation Program. It is an official part of the GNU project.

The GIMP can be used to process digital graphics and photographs. Typical uses include creating graphics, resizing and cropping photos, changing colors, combining images using a layer paradigm, removing unwanted image features, and converting between different image formats.

The GIMP is also notable as perhaps the first major free software end-user application. Previous work, such as GCC, the Linux kernel, and so on, were mainly tools by programmers for programmers.

Features The GIMP was intended as a free (as in speech) alternative to Adobe Photoshop, but the latter still dominates in the printing and graphics industries:

- Photoshop includes licensed support for the Pantone color matching system.

- The number of plugins and other add-ons available for Photoshop is larger.

- GIMP has only experimental CMYK separation support.

- GIMP has almost no spot color support.

- GIMP has limited gamma support.

- GIMP has limited color management through LCMS There is a plugin called PSPI for the Microsoft Windows version of the GIMP only, which allows the use of the 8bf Adobe Photoshop filters in the GIMP.

The peculiarity of graphic design is the ability of graphics to interact with different projects. It is necessary to mention that such feature became indispensable at Internet technologies development. As well as interactive use, the GIMP can be automated with macro programs. The built-in Scheme can be used for this, or alternatively Perl, Python and Tcl can also be used. This allows the writing of scripts and plugins for the GIMP which can then be used interactively; it is also possible to produce images in completely non-interactive ways (for example generating images for a webpage on the fly using CGI scripts) and for batch color correction and conversion of images.

The current (as of March 2005) stable version of the GIMP is 2.2.7. Major changes compared to version 1.include a more polished user interface and further separation of the user interface and back-end. For the future it is planned to base GIMP on a more generic graphical library called GEGL, thereby addressing some fundamental design limitations that prevent many enhancements such as native CMYK support.

Software Engineering Screenshot of The GNU Image Manipulation Program 2.0.0 running on XFce on Linux 4. Adobe Photoshop The most outstanding graphic image editor is Adobe Photoshop [4]. Adobe Photoshop is a bitmap graphics editor (with some text and vector graphics capabilities) developed and published by Adobe Systems. It is the market leader for commercial bitmap image manipulation. As with most of Adobe's other applications, Photoshop is available for Mac OS and Microsoft Windows; versions up to Photoshop 7 can also be used with operating systems such as Linux using software such as CrossOver Office. Past versions of the program were ported to the SGI IRIX platform, but official support for this port was dropped after version 3.

Features Although primarily designed to edit images for paper-based printing, Photoshop is used increasingly to produce images for the World Wide Web. Recent versions bundle a related application, Adobe ImageReady, to provide a more specialized set of tools for this purpose.

Photoshop also has strong links with software for media editing, animation and authoring. It works with Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Premiere, Adobe After Effects & Adobe Encore DVD to make professional standard DVDs, provide non-linear editing and special effects services such as backgrounds, textures and so on for television, film and the web. Photoshop's native file format (PSD or PDD) can be exported to and from Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Premiere, After Effects and Adobe Encore DVD. Photoshop CS broadly supports making menus and buttons for DVDs. For PSD or PDD files exported as a menu or button, it only needs to have layers, nested in layer sets with a cueing format and Adobe Encore DVD reads them as buttons or menus.

PSD or PDD is a widely accepted file format. Competing bitmap image editing programs (such as Macromedia Fireworks, Corel Photo-Paint, Discreet Combustion, WinImages, GIMP, etc.) can import and edit layered PSD or PDD files.

The most recent version, as of 2006, is version 9. This iteration of the program is marketed as "Photoshop CS2".

In an effort to break away with previous versions of the application and to reinforce its belonging with the new line of products, Photoshop even dropped one classic graphic feature from its packaging: the Photoshop eye, which was present in different manifestations from versions 4 to 7. Photoshop CS versions now use feathers as a form of identification.

Photoshop CS features a revolutionary command: 'Shadow/Highlight' which allow user to 'suppress' highlights and/or 'push out' shadows while maintaining most of the 'image details' (i.e. the histogram would remain virtually unchanged).

Fourth International Conference I.TECH 2006 Screenshot of the Photoshop CS under Mac OS X 5. From Novelty To Everyday Use Only one and a half decade ago paint programs were treated like novelty and something very exquisite. But the development of such software turned out to be extremely rapid. Thus for comparatively short period they became an every-day need for representatives of a fine art community. Even more, the development of graphics editors caused the emergence of a new term photoshopping. The term photoshopping is a neologism, meaning "editing an image", regardless of the program used. The name comes from Adobe Photoshop, the image editor most commonly used for the practice, although other programs, such as Paint Shop Pro, Photopaint, or the GIMP may be used.

The practice of photoshopping is possible because modern image editors made the work of altering images extremely easy, particularly with the clone tool. Nowadays actually anyone who possesses elementary computer skills can use photoshopping to edit his photographs.

Professional photographers also use photoshopping in their work. Thus, practically, no photograph in the magazines Popular Photograph, Nature Photographer, Close Up and others is free of retouch. The example of professional photograph, retouched with the help of Photoshop is presented below:

Fine Art Photograph by Richard Seiling Breaking Clouds, Half Dome (20 x 24 inches) Image is take from http://www.yosemitestore.com/ Software Engineering Photographer Richard Seiling captured this image in Yosemite Valley, as sunlight broke through the clouds of a winter storm. Taken on 4x5 transparency film, Rich scanned the image into the computer, and performed traditional darkroom techniques, such as dodging and burning, using Adobe Photoshop. This image comes matted and overmatted on 8-ply white Archival Mat Board.

It also should be mentioned that today no well-colored magazine can do without the imaged edited in graphics editors. The results of such work are apparent everywhere from ads in the magazines to the billboards.

Conclusion The present study presents a concise review of historical development of graphic editors with the particular consideration of the most representative examples. The comparative approach to the most powerful graphic editors that represent two different, in principle, branches of software - free (Paint.NET and GIMP) and commercial (Adobe Photoshop) revealed that potentialities of commercial software is still leading on software market due to its advanced and newest features that satisfy the most refined aspirations of professional users.

Thats why the professionals prefer Adobe Photoshop; however, the amateurs may be well satisfied by Paint Shop Pro, Photopaint, or the GIMP. The last but not the least point is that when making a choice for a particular digital art and design program one should remember the rapid progress of this kind of software and the abilities that used to be pertinent to expensive commercial products now are the characteristics of more simple free software products.

References [1] http://amiga.emugaming.com/dpaint.html official site of Electronic Arts Company [2] http://www.eecs.wsu.edu/paint.net/ official site of Paint.NET [3] http://www.gimp.org/ official site of the GIMP [4] http://www.adobe.com official site of the Adobe Company In the research the material from the following sites was used:

http://www.guerillapixel.com/pages/digital_ill_pages/software_mainr.htm http://screamdesign.daz3d.com/ http://www.photoshopcafe.com/PhotoshopCS2.htm Authors Information Khaled Batiha e-mail: batihakhalid@yahoo.com Safwan Al-Salaimeh e-mail: safwan_71@yahoo.com, Khaldoun A.A. Besoul e-mail: dr_khaldoun69@hotmail.com Irbid National University, Faculty of information technology, Irbid, The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Fourth International Conference I.TECH 2006 IMAGE PARTITIONS METRIC PROPERTIES IN IMAGE UNDERSTANDING PROBLEMS Vladimir Mashtalir, Vladislav Shlyakhov Abstract: A new distance function to compare arbitrary partitions is proposed. Clustering of image collections and image segmentation give objects to be matched. Offered metric intends for combination of visual features and metadata analysis to solve a semantic gap between low-level visual features and high-level human concept.

Keywords: partition, metric, clustering, image segmentation.

Introduction There has been a tremendous growth of the image content analysis significance in the recent years. This interest has been motivated mainly by the rapid expansion of imaging on the World-Wide Web, the availability of digital image libraries, increasing of multimedia applications in commerce, biometrics, science, entertainments etc.

Visual contents of an image such as color, shape, texture and region relations play dominating role in propagation of feature selection, indexing, user query and interaction, database management techniques. Many systems combine visual features and metadata analysis to solve the semantic gap between low-level visual features and high-level human concept, i.e. there arises a great need in self-acting content-based image retrieval task-level systems.

To search images in an image database traditionally queries ad exemplum are used. In this connection essential efforts have been devoted to synthesis and analysis of image content descriptors. However, a users semantic understanding of an image is of a higher level than the features representation. Low-level features with mental concepts and semantic labels are the groundwork of intelligent databases creation. Short retrieval time independent of the database size is a fundamental requirement of any user friendly content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system. Characteristics of different CBIR schemes, similarities or distances between the feature vectors of the query by example or sketch and those of the images collection are sufficiently full explored [see, e.g. 1-3]. To optimize CBIR schemes it is necessary to minimize a total number of matches at a retrieval stage. Thus there arises a problem to find novel partition constructions for the fast content-based image retrieval in video databases and furthermore we have be able to compare different partitions.

A Metric for Partitions Matching As retrieval is computationally expensive, one of the most challenging moments in CBIR is minimizing of the retrieval process time. Widespread clustering techniques allow to group similar images in terms of their features proximity. The number of matches can be greatly reduced, but there is no guarantee that the global optimum solution is obtained. We propose clustering of image collections with objective function encompassing goals to number of matches at a search stage.

The problem is in that under given query y Y one needs to find the most similar image (or images) x X.

v In other words, it is necessary to provide minvV (y, x ) (here ( ) is arbitrary distance function, V is an, v indexing set) during minimum possible warranted time. If Y X, the exact match retrieve is required. We shall [ ] name elements X, of power set 2X as clusters if they correspond to the partition of set X. Let us consider such partitions that any elements of one cluster do not differ from each other more than on, i.e.

[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] x' x'' we have x' = x'', if (x', x'' ) and x' x'' = otherwise. The given or obtained value used at a clustering stage is connected with required accuracy of retrieve, if it is specified, as follows. There arise two cases:

Software Engineering > any representative of the cluster nearest to the query y can be used as the image retrieval result, i.e.

minimal number of matches is defined by the number of clusters; in other words it is necessary to provide (1) [ ]} N1 = card { X min ;

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