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However, in Type II structures it is extremely difficult to reach integration.28 Effective co-evolution of communication, knowledge fields, and emotional energy becomes a real challenge and, if coordination and integration are poor, performance of the knowledge creating system would be lower than that of distributed knowledge creation. The ways of combining spatial distance of actors with high levels of integration are yet to be investigated.

As we have shown, all four types of intellectual network structures have their pros and cons and should be involved in knowledge-creation process as a whole where they would interchange each other, appearing and disappearing with high speed. This co-dependence may lead to the structural coupling of autonomous knowledge fields in which communication networks are embedded. Intellectual network would then be constituted by the coherent interplay of knowledge fields through continuous micro-level knowledge creation rituals which would bring to co-evolution the whole of heterogeneous knowledge and individuals emotional energy. Rare loosely integrated parts would then alternate with dense parts of high integration.

Channels of communication and energy exchange would be formed and sustained in frequent face-to-face knowledge creation rituals (ad hoc Type I structures), but so that the interaction could be performed again and again by using new information technologies to maintain the feeling of unity (Type II structures). New links would be built, predominantly in Type III structures.

This is the way for a knowledge-creating system to function sustainably in integrating heterogeneous knowledge of contemporary societies.

Notes RN Giere & B Moffatt, Where the Cognitive and the Social Merge. Social Studies of Science, vol. 33, 2003, p. 308.; G Bhm, Cognitive Norms, 64 From Distributed Knowledge Knowledge-Interests and the Construction of the Scientific Object, in The Social Production of Scientific Knowledge, E. Mendelsohn, P. Weingart & R.

Whitley (eds), D. Reidel Publising Company, Dordrecht, 1977, pp. 129-141;

R Krohn, Introduction: Towards the Empirical Study of Scientific Practice, in The Social Process of Scientific Investigation, K. Knorr, R. Krohn & R.

Whitley (eds), D. Reidel Publising Company, Dordrecht, 1980, pp. vii-xxv; A ORand, Knowledge Form and Scientific Community: Early Experiment Biology and the Marine Biological Laboratory, in The Knowledge Society, G. Bohme & N. Stehr (eds), D. Reidel Publising Company, Dordrecht, 1986, pp. 183-191; B Latour, Laboratory Life, Princeton, NJ 1986; B Latour, Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society, Open University Press, Milton Keynes, 1987; R Collins, The Sociology of Philosophies: A Global Theory of Intellectual Change, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2002; R Collins, Interaction Ritual Chains, Princeton University Press, Princeton, Oxford, 2004; J Urry, Social Networks, Travel and Talk. British Journal of Sociology, vol. 54, June 2003, p. 159; B Cronin, D Shaw & K La Barre, Co-Authorship and Sub-Authorship Collaboration in the Twentieth Century as Manifested in the Scholarly Literature of Psychology and Philosophy. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, vol. 54, 2003, pp. 855-871; L Leydesdorff, A Sociological Theory of Communication: The SelfOrganization of the Knowledge-Based Society, Universal Publishers, Parkland, FL, 2001, pp. 186-190; E Garfield, Citation Indexing: Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1979; M de Mey, The Cognitive Paradigm: An Integrated Understanding of Scientific Development, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1992, pp. 135-136.

K Axhausen, A Dynamic Understanding of Travel Demand: A Sketch, in Integrated Land-Use and Transportation Models: Behavioural Foundations, MEH Lee-Gosselin & S Doherty (eds), Elsevier, Oxford, 2005, p. 9; Urry, op. cit,, p. 159; K Deutsch, Nerves of Government: Models of Political Communication and Control, Free Press of Glencoe, London, 1963, pp. 165166; B Cronin, op. cit.; D Rhoten, E OConnor & E J Hackett, The Act of Collaborative Creation and the Art of Integrative Creativity: Originality, Disciplinarity and Interdisciplinarity. Thesis Eleven, 96, 2009, pp. 86-87.

M Gibbons et al., The New Production of Knowledge: the Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies, Sage, London, 1994, pp. 46.

D Rhoten et al., op. cit.; A Koestler, The Act of Creation, Macmillan, New York, 1964; DK Simonthon, Creativity, Leadership, and Chance, in The Nature of Creativity, RJ Sternberg (ed.), Cambridge University Press, Nikita Basov and Anna Shirokanova Cambridge, 1988, pp. 386-426; KD Knorr, The Scientist as an Analogical Reasoner, in The Social Process of Scientific Investigation, K. Knorr-Cetina, R Krohn & R. Whitley (eds), D. Reidel Publising Company, Dordrecht, 1980, pp. 25-52; NW Warner & M Letsky, Empirical Model of Team Collaboration Focus on Macrocognition, in Macrocognition in Teams:

Theories and Methodologies, MP Letsky & NW Warner (eds), Ashgate Publishing Limited, Hampshire, 2008, pp. 15-33.

H Garfinkel, M Lynch & E Livingston, The Work of a Discovering Science Construed with Materials form the Optically Discovered Pulsar.

Philosophy of the Social Sciences, vol. 11, 1981, pp. 131-158; B Latour, op.

cit.; S Fuchs, The Professional Quest for Truth: A Social Theory of Science and Knowledge, State University of the New York Press, New York, 1992;

R Collins, 2002, op. cit., p. 2.

M Gibbons et al., op. cit.

KM Carley, An Approach for Relating Social Structure to Cognitive Structure. Journal of Mathematical Sociology, vol. 12, 1986, pp. 137-189;

N S Contractor & S Grant, The Emergence of Shared Interpretations in Organizations: A Self-Organizing Systems Perspective, in Cycles and Dynamic Processes in Communication Processes, J Watt & A VanLear (eds), Sage, Newbury Park, 1996, pp. 216-230.

PR Monge & N S Contractor, Theories of Communication Networks.

Oxford University Press, New York, 2003, p. 91.

PR Monge & E M Eisenberg, Emergent Communication Networks, in Handbook of Organizational Communication, FM Jablin, LL Putnam, KH Roberts & LW Porter (eds), Sage, Newbury Park, 1987, pp. 304-342.

AB Rossokhin, & VL Izmagurova, Lichnost v Izmenennih Sostoyanijah Soznanya v Psihoanakize i Psihoterapii (Personality in Altered States of Consciousness in Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy), Smysl, Moscow, 2004; I Mitroff, The Subjective Side of Science, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1974; L Feuer, Einstein and the Generations of Science, Basic Books, New York, 1974.

R Collins, 2002, op. cit.

R Collins, 2004, op. cit., pp. 107-108.

ibid.

ibid., p. 47.

ibid., pp. 75-78; R Collins, 2002, op. cit.

H G Gadamer, Truth and Method, Sheed and Ward, London, 1989;

K Mannheim, Structures of Thinking, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1982, pp. 194-209.

Communication tools listed from now on are not exclusive for this or that structure type, but the most used.

66 From Distributed Knowledge K Fisher & MD Fisher, Distributed Mind: Achieving High Performance through the Collective Intelligence of Knowledge Work Teams, Amacom, New York, 1998, pp. 275-276.

TM Gureckis & RL Goldstone, Thinking in Groups, in Cognition Distributed: How Cognitive Technology Extends our Minds, I. E. Dror & S. Harnad (eds), John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 2008;

S Fuchs, op. cit.

R Collins, 2004, op. cit., pp. 190-194.

KM Carley, op. cit., p. 417.

G Bhm, Cognitive Norms, Knowledge-Interests and the Construction of the Scientific Object, in The Social Production of Scientific Knowledge, E Mendelsohn, P Weingart & R Whitley (eds), D. Reidel Publising Company, Dordrecht, 1977, pp. 129-141.

A ORand, op. cit.; B C Griffith & N C Mullins, Coherent Social Groups In Scientific Change (Invisible Colleges May Be Consistent throughout Science). Science, vol. 177 (4053), 1972, pp. 959-966.

MS Granovetter, The Strength of Weak Ties. American Journal of Sociology, vol. 78 (6), 1973, pp. 1360-1380.

K Hakkarainen, T Palonen, S Paavola & E Lehtinen, Communities of Networked Expertise: Professional and Educational Perspectives, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2004, p. 75.

S Fuchs, op. cit., p. 90.

ibid., p. 91.

D A Winsor, Learning to Do Knowledge Work in Systems of Distributed Cognition. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, vol. 15 (1), January 2001, p. 25; K Fischer & M D Fischer, op. cit., pp. 151-152.

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