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111 MAOE PEPTE A EBA COCTABA COBPEMEHHO OHOMECO CCTEM A.P. eopoa, accce (ucu ocyapcme auauo mexuecu yuepcumem) pacpyypa poo oo a poocey occey ae occey pep, oope o oe epoo opeec a pye, cpee ae. Meco po x ceopo ooe pa. py ec opeee ooecy execy o cpa. O oee epa, ooa oee ex apepo yp cpa oec eyapoe cpyyp. Cpee pep ecye oo a ypee pe oee eco ca c aoa epeca. Mae pep peca coo ca ooce co ex coceo opee coao-ooec o cpa. o ceop opaye paeey ce, paoay a accooo opee.

Ta opao, cpaax c pao poo ooo cyecye ycoa, a oa cpyypa: aoe c ooe. eco, o cyepa opac a c ceex pep pop c co ypoe ceaa. Ma ec opye pooce, cpoece, opoe cepe ycy, a c eax op - opacx cox exoo. cee coca eoope opac (apep, apooceca, epoa, aooa).

Ceop aoo pepaeca axoc epe e oo o cy ax p, o o cy apoc. Oao eco paopxc p oa oe, a ce ecoae oype oepaec eoe aecoe paoece oee co ax pep ocaec oco , p poce opeoce pa, yeaec.

B ocee 10-15 e ae cpee pep ca pea cee ae yex-ooco. Bce oee pooe pae oyae cocooc pep aoo cpeeo eca oc cyece a peee poe aoc oee oypeococooc ex opace.

Oao o cx op opeee epa aoe pepe y eopeo e eoo e. oco ooco eaaec o aepaa ooecoo eca HT* coec oy, o acoc o ee cceoa coyc pae oxo opeee aoo pep, paoa eoe opeeee eooo.

Bce oxo opeee aoo pep ooeco eop oo opae a a ocox - oece aece.

aecme noxo o pep opeee aoo pep ocox xapaepx ocoeoce eo yopoa a caocoeo ooeco e.

Papaoo cce aecex pepe aac ae ooc a Ba Xop, X. Be, A. yc, A. oeco p. o aey e aa ccea pepe oe pecaea cey opao.

peyeca aeceoo oxoa c eo eopeecoe oocoae ye pooo cepa ocoeoce aoo pep. o oxo paccapae ay py e a aa a poca a yee apa oo oa, a a ocoy opaa co ceec epa, a oopx c: oee coa cocooc oa, coa cee acoc o ee cpe eopeeeoc eeoc, ocooe pae cpa aapyeoc ee.

Taa 1 Ccea aecex pepe opeee aoo pep pep Bype cpea pep pooco ocpoc ooee, oc pooceoo poecca;

opaeoc acao peex cpec pooca exooecx poecco;

eoa oeaypa ycaex e oaaex ycy;

ypoeoc cce ca.

ac ooceo eoo aca cooa acox pecypco;

coa oopaaeoc;

a cee aaa;

opaeoc coo acpoa xpoeca exaa aao.

eaaec o aepaa ooecoo eca HT* pooee a 1.

paee eco paa coceoc ypae;

epopaec xapaep cpyyp ypae;

oaoc ypaeeco oa;

ooyoaoc eeepo;

cpoa p pee;

eopa xapaep apoa opo.

Be cpea pep opee opae o eppopaoy pyoy pay cee opeee;

oca oa po pecypco;

ocpe ocycy;

oype oeco oapo-ox oypeo (a cee cyae, oa pepe axo opey ooecy y);

oaoe cepxyceoc oea ooeco eee oyp;

opyee eoooc oaa aoo-o a eee e opac (yopoae ycox, pex coepeo oype);

oa cee acoc o oeco ocao, ee aooaeca;

eoxooc ocyapceo oep.

Oco eocaa aeceoo oxoa c cooc eo paecoo pee, oycoea, acoc, pyoc ocya yppeo opa po cepo pepe.

ooy pee opex paecx aa cac, aooooe, yxaepcoo yea coy ouecme noxo opeee aoo pep. B eo ocoe ea ae eo ocye aaa pep a co ax, oe poa (oopo), aacoa cooc ao. Xo ooe pep c aoee pacpocpae, papoc e o oecex apaepax ee ax pepe peao po ae peeax oo cpa, e oop ye o pax cpaax. o ocec po cepo aa, oopx coy opae opeee, a ae pa ypoe pa oo pax cpaax.

Ta, CA epaoe oe a ec ae:

poy eeoc ceeoo eca;

eaaec o aepaa ooecoo eca HT* ae pep c ceoc ax o 100 eoe;

cpee pep c ceoc ax o 100 o eoe.

B cpaax EC 1996 . a paoaa ea eooo oece pep papy ax cpex:

a copyo e oe pea 250 eoe;

coceoc pyo opaa axoc e oee 25% coceoc pep;

ooo oopo pep e oe pea 40 .

.

Coaco ao acca 99% cex pep EC (ceo x opa 16 .) oocc aeop ax cpex.

oee 90% (ooo 15 .) - uponpenpumu c co ax e oee 10 eoe, oeceae eep cooyoo oopoa pe paox ec. Ocoa eeoc popep - ycy, opo cpoeco. Ooo 1 . pep (9%) oocc aeop ax (10-49 eoe paoax). O oecea ooo pe paox ec 40% cyapoo oopoa.

Ooo 55% ax pep a opoe ycyax, 45% - cpoece pax opacx poeoc. o opeeee cpeeo pep (ceoc epcoaa o 50 o 250 eoe) oaa 1% pep. Cpe paep pep aoo acca - 100 eoe. O a y ac oeo oopoa 15% paox ec. Cpee pep - oopa opaaae poeoc. pyn pep oocc ceo 0,2% (30 c.) pep, a x paoae ooo pe ax, o poo pe o oeo oopoa. pye pep opy aaoeo poeoc, aoco cpaxoo eeoc, pacopx ycyax.

B Pocc oe aoe pepe o eeo oce 1990 . pacopee Coea Mcpo CCCP xapaepoaoc co ax acoc o opac xoca: e oee eoe poeoc cpoece, 100 eoe cepe HOP, 50 - pox poocex opacx 15 - poo opoe epoocex opacx. opa coceoc e opaaac.

B 1995 . eepa aoo O ocyapceo oepe aoo pepaeca pep aoo pep ee. B acoee pe a pep P pac ceye oepece opaa - pece eaaec o aepaa ooecoo eca HT* a:

1) ycao aae oopx o ocyapceo yao coceoc, oecex peox opaa, aoopex pyx oo e peae 25%, o, paeaa ooy eco pec a, e c cyea aoo pepaeca ae e peae 25%;

2) cpe ceoc paoo e peae:

poeoc, cpoece a pacope - eoe;

ceco xoce ayo-execo cepe - eoe;

ooo opoe oo ocya - 30 eoe;

ocax opacx p ocyece pyx o eeoc - 50 eoe.

oo paccopex e oxoo opeee aoo pep cyecye pe - ouupoa oxo, peoe 1971 oy ooc oeo, ocpeco oopoo a ceaa oa oe cacece ooece oaae.

o acaec y, oope oe ooe ceop ax pepaeca, o x oo opae a ooece coae.

oouecu yu aoo pep oocc ceye:

1) poocea - o a OOH, a ec poo xoceo ccee poo o 33 o 66% aoaoo poya.

2) eppya - ocoo cpaee ax pep ec yoeopee ocoo exc oecex opeoce, a ae oopx eooo opaoa acaoe eoe pooco, a opao o coa eococ pa, ypaoeeoc cpoca peoe.

3) y oppoa oypeo cpe: eeoc oca ax p a yco coepeo oype, o oyppy ey coo, c aoe opaee pyx oa , a e ceop oo, ae c ca o oa.

4) y aaaopa ayo-execoo popecca - o peapy a ee pa, ae p ao eaaec o aepaa ooecoo eca HT* ocyec oaoy eeoc.

5) y paoaoo cooa pecypco:

aepax (pooe peee ecx coo cp oxoo pyoo pooca), acox (epeo aoe acee ec) pyox (coae ox paox ec).

Maoe pepaeco oe ae couae yuu:

1) y pyoo paooae, o ce coao-yx coe (e, ao). Ta, CA a epo 1976-1999 . pye cpee pep oep 500 850 c. paox ec cooeceo, a ae pep a o e epo coa 4,1 . ox paox ec, oecea 65% coo ppoca paox ec o cpae.

2) y aopaopa coao apeoc oece, ocoy eo aoe pepaeco ec yaeao ocoo oppoa cpeeo acca ocae ee coao epea.

3) y pooceoo oye epcoaa.

Ta opao oeo, o a ec pecae coo eoxo ee copeeo poo oo.

oppoa pox ooe Pocc eeo opayeao coae pae cce aoo pepaeca. ocy ypoe pa aoo pepaeca, epe o oep pax cpaax oaae, o eocaoe. 2001 oy Pocc, o a oao cac, yopoao 875,5 c. ax pep, o cocao oe ce pep ceo 30,7% ( cpaax EC - 99%). Ba ax pep oeceoe pooco Pocc cocae 11%, oa a cpaax EC - e eee 50%. o ax a ax pepx Pocc - 13%, EC - 70%. Ha 1000 pocc pxoc 6 ax pep, cpaax EC - e eee 30. B cpyype pocccoo aoo pepaeca a poe ocex e cepex co e aaoc. oee peoeo pocccoo pepaeca ocaec cepa ycy opo, poeoc cpoece o ax pep cocae 15,3% 14,4% cooeceo. Xapaepo, o pooeoc pya a ax pepx e cpeepocccoo ypo, ocoeo poeoc (a 30%).

Oeo, o opoee oeeceo oo peye aa ceopa aoo pepaeca, eo eaaec o aepaa ooecoo eca HT* oaox cocooce, aoe ooecx pooca ex oapo ycy, opeoc oopx e yoeopc oo oee o yoeopc a ce opa. Oao caca ocex e oop o caa ae copae ceoc ax pep. Ceoaeo, coec apoooece paoe yco e cococy pepaeco aoc oe ox p. Pea eoo cypoa pa aoo eca ec eee ocyapceo o oac oep aoo pepaeca, coae oee peex yco eeoc, ocoeo opace poeoc, HOP ooo ocya. O apyex cpa oaae, o ocyapcea oepa aoo eca ec oaeo. Ooceo ecoa ecocooc ax pep ec eeoe cece x cyoc, a o, o aoe pepe - ae oaox poecco, a a, pa oo eo.

* ooec ec HT /o pe. ... Poooo .H. //C. pyo HT, 2001. c. 111-117.




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