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u1 + u2 3,epeee, c Taa cepeaoe opeeee epeee o oyec pyo epeee o oye py c pya U3, c cepeae ycao oe P 51 oe P 100 c 62 Boe cceoa oaao, o eye oyec pya oe pec eoo, a pe cyae ooo oee ecex yco pao pyopooa eee eoo pee, oepe eo cyaaoo aeoc.

Ta opao, ee oyec pya oaae ooe e a xapaep aoec pyopooo c pyo. Heye oo e oe opeeex cyax oca o ypoy opay paoy pyopooa, pec oep epeaaeoo poya.

B aee ae, o ee oyec aoee cyeceo poec cx pyax, ocoeo ooacex. o oop o o, o eeoe eee ae ceo aaec ex pyax, coca oopx pac coca o oc.

B pee ae pee pace apeoo coco pyopooo a poox coax epo oaa.

a U +U, c c u C, Ma,H/, payc , MH/ o oa pyo oa ..

(U / U +U ) 100% aopo opypopeo.H.

o opya oo 15c 17,0,0,0,poaa..

0,o peoe 0,100% a o 12c 15,0,0,0,0,eco 21,4% -11,5% +8,6% opeoc, % Moa pyopooo a poox coax ocyec a pae o cxea a cy epx, a cepxy , a ae o opoao cxee, o ac ocoo o e poooo yoa, oooc oca py epx coa, a coco pyo oepxoc coa, a cooecye cpoeo ex.

B epaype paccope eoope pacee cya, oa aec yo coa p

o peoe opya (po. opoa..) oo oca acae yc Pmax acae epeee py Umax p oae cepxy cy epx, aee oy ape pyopooe.

Oao opy, peoee po. opoa.. oy cooa p oo, cpoo cpoao ye coa.

Ha pae ae cpeac pacee cxe, oa oa pyopooa pxoc a co, a a ecoo yaco c pa yoa 1 2. B c c oa eoxooc papao eo, yae ceye pacee coea: 1) 1>2p; 2) 2>1p; 3) 1p>2; 4) p>1>2; 5) p>2>1; 6) 2p>1. Pacee cxe apaep, oeae pooc pyopooa p oae cepxy , pee a. 2, a cy epx a. 3.

ec qTP apya o coceoo eca e pyopooa e poya; KU oe copoe pya p poox epeeex pyopooa ( MH/3), opeee cepea ye;

A ac opyoc py, opaec a py; F oa oepeoo cee eaa py; Dapy aep py; AKu oe, pa =.

EF Opeeee o a opya yc epecac pooe ape o opye = / F.

Taa Pacee cxe apeoo coco pyopooo p oae cepxy Pacea cxea Be, opeee pooc ce py 1. 1>2p x LPxxLPxxPmax = qTPL1(sin1 - f cos1)+qTPL2(sin2 - f cos2) -qTPL1 qTPLUmax = (sin1 - f cos1)- (sin2 - f cos2) x 2. 2>1p 2EF 2EF PxxLPx1 xL3. 1p>2 sin thLPmax = qTP L1(sin 1 - f cos 1 )+ qTP Lx PxL1 x2 - qTP L1 qTP sin x1 Px1 U = (sin - f cos )max 1 1 L 2EF K A ch u 4. p>1>Lx PxL1 xsin th L1 sin th L 1 2 x1 PxPmax = q + q TP TP - qTP sin 1 1 qTP sin - - U = 5. p>2>max 1 K A chL1 K A chLu u Pxxx1 Px1 2 LL6. 2p>sin 1thLPmax = qTP + qTP L2(sin 2 - f cos 2 ) Px xx1 Px1 2 L -qTPsin1 1 qTPL Umax = (sinL1- chL1 - 2EF - f cos2) KuA Taa Pacee cxe apeoo coco pyopooo p oae cy epx Pacea cxea Be, opeee pooc ce py 1. 1>2p Px xL1 xL PxPmax = -qTPL1(sin1 - f cos1)- qTPL2(sin2 - f cos2) x 2. 2>1p qTP L1 qTP L2 U = (sin 1 - f cos 1)+ (sin - f cos ) max 2 2EF 2EF L1 x1 Px2 x LPxx 3. 1p>x2 sin th LPmax = - qTP L1(sin - f cos )- qTP Px1 L1 xLPx qTP L1 qTP sin 2 U = (sin 1 - f cos1)+ max 1 1 - chL x 2EF Ku A 4. p>1>LxPxLxsin th L1 sin th L Px1 1 2 Pmax = - q - qTP TP x qTP sin1 1 qTP sin2 5. p>2>Umax = 1- chL1 + Ku A 1- chL Ku A Pxxx2 LPxL x sin 1thL6. 2p>Pmax = -qTP - qTP L2(sin - f cos ) 2 Px x x2 LPx qTP sin1 1 qTPLUmax = (sin2 - f cos2) L1- + K A chL1 2EF x u Heoxoo oe, o oyee pacee opy eecoopao cooa oo yco, cpeaxc a pae. Hapep, oa cy epx eecoopae a yoax, e peax 20o, p o paop pyoya oca a co ce yx-epex py ooe py caocoeo, oa pyopooa cepxy oe oc a x yoax, a p ee x oee 40o ooe ec eceo oo.

a oaa o cyaa, acpae pyopoo, coopyaee opx ycox, p opeeex ycox oaac oe pa ooe. Haoee pacpocpaee o oya a yacax, pooex co epeceeo ecoc co co eepoeooec yco.

Paa a a cooo oec ooax pyo a pyopoo.

1. Ooae pya pocxo o oc pyopooa a poox coax. p ao oec pyopooax oa cae, pacae e pye ape oopeeo.

2. Ooae pya pocxo epeypo o eoop yo () pooo oc pyopooa (pc.3). o cooo oec pyo aoee oace, a a pyopoo oepaec e oo pace-ca, o y, o p opeeex ycox oe a o py.

Ocoeo aco oo opoo a cpeac a yacax c papaoa ee cpoeo-oax pao oa, -a apye ececeoo paoecoo coco coo.

pe p eacoc ec c, ao co pace cya peaaec paccapa a cyy yx pocx cyae, p o acae ape opee cypoae oec o oex cocax ooeoo yc (qDE), opeeeoo o ec acoc exa pyo: q1 - apae, epeypo pooo oc, q2 -apaeo pooo oc.

y q DE x q 1 q W N N. Q 0 M Q x L/L L L 0 Pc.3. Pacea cxea pyopooa o oece ooaeo pya Ec poecce cyaa a ao-o yace aae paac ooe, o pee e pcy papaoe oeca epop, eoxoo poep apeoe cocoe pyopooa, oepeoo oec oo. coy pacey eoy oec oo, peoey po. opoa.., a cocaea popaa o opeee apeoo coco pyopooa o cooo oec oo. poee pace apeoo coco pyopooo p pax eax cooo oec oo qo=016H/; yax =15, 30, 45, 60, 75 90o; ax yaca oec oo L=20140 .

Pace oe py aepa D=530, 720, 1020 1420 p pax oax ce =518 (pc.4, 5, 6 a.4).

a. 4 o, o p =150 a o ape o pooo cocae q2 pxoc oo ooo 8% o cyapx ape o.

y f Hape pyopooe o cooo oec oo p qo=4 H/, L=40, D=530, Ma (ca 171C) 1(o q1=qo sin) 2(o q2=qo cos) o=1+15o 59,7 5,2 64,30o 121,0 4,6 125,45o 165,9 3,8 169,60o 200,2 2,7 202,75o 219,3 1,4 220,90o 224,5 0 224,Cyape ape, oae pyopooe o oec oo = f (q,, L, ), peaaec oca ceye aeaeco oe epaepo e:

= aln(qsin +1) + bln(L +1) - cln( ) + d. (4) qon (H (Ma) on ) = L() = () ec = ; q = ; L ; ; R2paceoe coR2 (Ma) 10() 1() 10000(H ) poee pyo ca. oe a, b, c d, oyee c oo caceco opao, pecae a pc. 7 paac acoc :

a = 110-6 DH - 3,9 10-3 DH + 4,44 ; (5) b = 2 10-7 DH -1,210-3 DH +1,62 ; (6) c = 210-7 DH -1,510-3 DH + 2,26; (7) d = -2 10-7 DH - 9 10-4 DH + 2,63. (8) Coocaee peyao o paoo eoe o eoe, peoeo aopo, peeo a.5.

Taa Hape pyopooe o oec oo, Ma aep, o- o eoe o peoeo ea ce, opoaa acoc (4), Ooee, %.., Ma Ma 5309 301,0 281,6 -6,72010 212,1 220,6 +4,102012 187,7 171,7 -8,142015 280,9 293,6 +4,1 2 4 6 8 10 12 L 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,q 2,2,1,1,0,0,2468 10 12 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,Oocea a yaca cooo oec oo, L Oocea e a cooo oec oo, q Pc.5. acoc ape pye o Pc.4. acoc ape pye o e cooo oec oo e cooo oec oec oo q oec oo L oo py 530 9 py 530 9 a b c d 530 p q=0,4 720 p q=0,4 1020 p q=0,6 1420 p q=1,2,2,1,1,0,0,500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 aep py, Oocea oa ceo py, P.7. d Pc.6. acoc ape pye o o ceo p py py p L=60 pye, pye, Oocee ape Oocee ape a, b, c, d Oocee ape pye, a o a.5, peya paceo o peoeo eoe o eoe po. opoaa.. axoc oo cooec, o oepae eecoopaoc ee cooa oepao oe ypo apeoo coco pyopooo, oepex ooeoy oec.

Ec p cyaa pyopooa cyape ape o+p (o ypeeo ae epeaa eepayp), oae pyopooe, yy pea paceoe copoee R2, o pec yea oy ce py, pe oee poy pyy p epop o ce oec oo (ypeee coopye).

peoe pe paceoo eoa ooe cpo oe ecyy cocooc yaco pyopooo, oepex oey cya oec ooaeo pya, cyeceo p o ypoa pace.

B eepo ae papaoaa oceoaeoc ec p cocae pooa ooex poecco, pocxox co epeceeo ecoc. Tae oe ocoe p op c oo aa oea eoc pooooex epop ycox co epeceeo ecoc. aaa op c oo oece ycooc coa, .e. e oyc ooe oo a ee eoo coe pepa ceee ooax acc.

B ao ae papaoaa acca pooooex epop peoe oe ocpy pyopooo, poaaex ycox co epeceeo ecoc.

epeceee pyopooo ooeoo acca cea eeaeo, o coep, a o oaao e, ooy oacoc eo papye.

Ho ec ce e pyopoo pooe a yace, pepacooeo oo, o epo cpoeca poecce cyaa eoxoo pa ep, oeceae eo aey paoy.

oope ce, ca, o, aepoe Mexaecoe yepae peee (eapee ooax acc peapeo apee aepa), opopc, opae co eax, eoe pepa 1) ocooe ocyee cee pea oex o ypo (caoee pea) 2) peeoe ocyeeoa, op, epopea 1) epexa oepxocx o o x Peypoae ocye a ooeaope aa oepxocoo coa 2) opaa ycopee coa a oepxoc oo, yeee paaa pe, poapoa, yc o eccox oe, ycpoco ooooo ce cycceoe 1) ocooe (eopaoe) eee apeee pyo coco epa (p eepaype 800o), eea ya peoax pyoopcx opo, caa xopoo poaex eco, epoxecoe apeee ;

ope ooco 2) peeoe (opaoe) eee oeo, cocaopaae, peoxpae o epopea, pope o epa, eepayp 200300o (pocyae) yeae pa pae oo, op eoopye pyoeoa, aa, ya, eeae cooeae pyo oepoa, oce pa, ocaa peee coo ceax copo epee ooco paceoc ycapo epeycpoco coo yoaae, cpea epxe ac, ooco coae ep, eppacpoae, oca aeo, opaeo ex paepco, yopa yeee ooc ooax acc, aea pya, opa c oo aca opao coa oepee y pooe ooo a epeax ooeo, cpyeapae Boc pyopooa a a oepee oyapy a oepxoc oo pyx peax, oo oooo, cpee pyce Ce pyooo ae c pyopooa coopyee aepex ycpoco pae oooox ce, ope coo po 5-6 a eeoeo a ooca, yy aoe py a, ao, cyccee , ycpoco oo cpooo opaax yc Heocpeceo aae epop eee poao ca yc aex copoeoc opo poocoe ca peee pooooee epop Pc.8. acca pooooex epop peea eee e poaece epop yc a pyopoo cax yc eee Ce oecyx B acoee pe pec paoopae pooooex coopye epop. p paccope oeca oox ep o ae pyopooa o oec ooe ce paee epop oo opae a e py: poaece aae (pc. 8).

ooooa 2 % ececeoe aaa cocoe coa pyopoo pae 2 % ypoae ca ooe oepxoc coe ooaeo pya Pc.9. Cxea oepeoo papea o e oyac oye a poopyeo ooeo yace pacc h 0,5 Pc.10. Haea poaa pyopooo:

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