WWW.DISSERS.RU

БЕСПЛАТНАЯ ЭЛЕКТРОННАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА

   Добро пожаловать!

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 134 | 135 || 137 | 138 |   ...   | 193 |

В-четвертых – что касается, в частности, Румынии, – использование инструментов анализа, применяемых в международных оценках, демонстрирует видимое запаздывание в сравнении со странами, которые добились успехов в развитии важнейших секторов знаниевой экономики (например, в Венгрии развивается мощная индустрия высоких технологий; в Чешской Республике эффективно реформируется система образования; в Словении достигнуты показатели производительности научных исследований, близкие к странам Запада; в Эстонии растет конкурентоспособный сектор информационных технологий). Эти инструменты анализа позволяют перенять лучшие практики соседних государств (например, словенскую программу привлечения ценного кадрового потенциала выпускников вузов к работе в перспективных областях исследований и производства; венгерскую программу стимулирования технологического развития промышленности и поощрения технологических взаимодействий между фирмами и транснациональными компаниями; тактику чешской реформы системы образования и др.).

Румынское государство должно содействовать строительству информационного общества и расширению ИТ-рынка мерами распространения цифровой грамотности, чтобы избежать «цифрового барьера», грозящего разделить румынское общество. Образование в сфере информационно-коммуникационных технологий в Румынии рассматривается как одно из лучших в мире, и тем не менее, уже проявилась нехватка специалистов и ограниченность человеческого ресурса по сравнению с динамикой рынка. Координация экономической политики, направленной на построение экономики знаний, с множеством других мер может оказаться труднодостижимой, и это представляет серьезную проблему для всех государств. Чтобы обеспечить корреляцию между макроэкономической стабильностью и развитием экономики знаний, тщательный баланс приоритетов в конкуренции, ситуация требует всеобъемлющего и согласованного стратегического подхода в долгосрочной перспективе.

Литература 1. Archibugi, D., Lundvall B.A. The Globalizing Learning Economy. – Oxford, 2001.

2. Bran, P. Economia valorii. – Bucureti, 3. Prigogine, I., Stengers I. ntre eternitate i timp. – Bucureti, 1997.

4. Dinu, M. Ce este societatea cunoaterii // Economie teoretic i aplicat. – 2008. – № 2.

5. Ciobanu, G., Pan A. Financial techniques information risk management enterprise // 16th International Economic Conference «Industrial revolutions, from the globalization and post-globalization perspective». – Sibiu, 2009.

6. Pan, A., Ciobanu G. Paradigma of value – the vision of Professor Paul Bran // Sesiunea de comunicari stiintifice al facultatii de management. – Bucureti, 2008.

ADAPTABILITY AND FLEXIBILITY – THE NEW MILESTONES OF DEVELOPMENT IN THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY Magdalena Velciu Global challenges and crisis Globalization has covered all spheres of human activity. In addition, the impact of new technologies upon production and the demographic changes have led to the socio-economic world to change at an unprecedented rate. Companies must respond quickly to new trends adapting themselves to maintain the competition. This is true in the cultural sphere, where to the risk of global uniformity is responding with increasing cultural and national language, in order to preserve the individuality under the pressure of global convergence.

The change is the new millennium keyword with a major global and organizational implications. In recent decades, changes in all areas of life (not only economic, technological and lifestyle, a mentality, social relationships, values and ideals) have become a certainty. Change requires individuals and social groups to reconsider their choices and values, or if not, to imagine ones defense strategy.

Change must be seen as a dynamic balance of forces, some of which are pushing the change, others cause a resistance to change.The current trend of development asks us to understand and control the change, but more important is to be one step ahead of change (P. Drucker, 2002).

Acceptance and adaptation to change is regarded as a favorably behavior to progress and renewal, as consequence of the economic pressures and increasingly diversified and more serviceoriented individual consumer. A diverse offer oblige people to choose and thus know better what they want. This new route psychological of self-knowledge requires an effort. Consciously or not, modern citizen is constantly changing, primarily as a consequence of the human brain maturation, genetically programmed, and secondly as the influence of modeling the external environment, relations with others, ICT‘s, media etc.

In Chinese language, the word «change» is composed of two ideograms: first ideogram meaning «crisis» and the second one «opportunity». For Chinese thinking, the crisis is the way from crisis to opportunity. Crisis, as a process, should be seen as a necessary step in the process of evolving to new stages of development. Although initially begins as a disturbance of the regular of economic, social and organizational life, this is a necessary stage in which old structures turns to some new superior ones.

The actual current global crisis has tested people and organizations ability to react. Even if the negative developments of economic indicators and financial spreads in the labor market with some delay, economic agents in all states of the world had to react to the regression of economic activities, in particular through expenditure restraint, staff reductions, halting investment The global crisis has forced organizations worldwide to assess their current situation and available resources to formulate a coherent strategic response, within the meaning of proper management of existing and potential exploitation of underused resources: people, values, strategies.

Adapting to a changing environment At the beginning of the 20th century, enterprises were manufacturing raw materials with physical labor of workers and machines. At mid-century, companies releases the stored energy in the processes (work processes, inter-human relations and group behavioral processes, etc.). Nowadays, the everyone's attention turns to information processing in fact, we can not conceive development (individual, micro, macro, or global) without being in connection with environment and process information (D.C. Dulcan, 1992). Throughout history we can observe an increasing capacity of systems for information processing and responding. Along with capacity for receiving, processing and responding to information there are an increasing ability to adapt to environmental conditions, in close correlation with the development prospects surrounding the macrosystem.

The origin of term «adaptation» comes from biology, where it was described as the living organism ability to cope with environmental perturbations, by correlating morphological structure and physiological functions in relation to the surounding environment, achieving superior characteristics for survival.

In psychotherapy, adaptation by itself suggests a balancing of the needs of the internal world of the external world.

In the field of organizational management, adaptability is defined (Andresen and Gronau, 2006) as the ability to generate changes within organization, operating mode and relationships, to respond effectively to environmental change and keep up with them. In the modern world, organizations such as living organisms must adapt to meet changing business environment.

In socio-economical field, this has become an essential condition for companies and workers to perform in the current turbulent environment. To be efficient, there is a need for organizational forms designed for flexibility, ie a mix of structure and systems of internal coordination, strategy, designed to adjust and use more efficient allocation of labor resources and market shares of the organization.

In this context, a very important role has the «culture of flexibility» and awareness of the benefits and of rapid recovery opportunities offered by leverage labor force flexibility. To use another language, there is no universally valid type of culture. Culture can not be bought, can not be imitated, but it develops gradually and is absolutely unique. To succeed, developments or changes in strategy should take into account the cultural context. Culture is a support organization orientation essential for management and employees, it is source identification and create a feeling of safety and refuge. It exert a strong influence on all employees and contribute to the success of the organization.

Adaptive organization As with any open system, the essential characteristic of organizations to the current turbulent environment is adaptability. This is defined by the capability to generate changes in the way of organizing, operating and networking, to respond effectively to environmental change and to keep up with them. The term comes from ecology, where adaptability has been described as the ability of living organisms to cope with unexpected disruptions in the environment, to survival.

In today's challenging world, the sustainable ability to adapt is much more important than anything else. Companies, like any living organism, must become learning organizations that change and adapt to suit their changing business environment. In this complex changing environment is a challenge for modern organizations to remain competitive, being forced to adapt to fluctuations, to explore global changes and transform them into opportunities. This need for greater competitiveness has led organizations to search for alternatives for being flexible on the methods of production, work organization and employment of workforce. Theese relate to: stimulate flexibility and innovative forms of work enhancing labor productivity, training in conjunction with information technology and progress.Theese relate to: stimulate flexibility and innovative forms of work enhancing labor productivity, training in conjunction with information technology and progress.

In the perspective of improving the adaptability and flexibility of organizations, human resource managers must adopt those management practices that would satisfy both requirements of the employer on company performance in terms of increased schimbabilitate and employee requirements on building a career and employment security needs.

Relations within organization become flexible, crossing formal demarcations between departments, and the main objective is fulfilling the task of job. Hierarchy is less rigid, almost unexisting and the ability of the worker to use it‘s knowledge, skills and initiative to achieve successfully a task and attracting a success for the organization are also appreciated. Therefore, the reward of the efforts is based on performance and contribution from each employee's to value creation.

Adaptive organization is a new organization based upon radically new logics of content, configuration, and change based on human capabilities rather than limitations. The three new logics for adaptive organizations include: new content: requires that concepts of strategy, structure, and systems are broadened to include a greater emphasis on human values, goals, capabilities, and efficacy; new configuration: specifies a new relationship among strategy, structure, and systems that gives priority to supporting workforce engagement and capability; new logic of change: asserts that people seek meaning in work through accomplishment and contribution to shared organization goals, and specifies a top-down-bottom-up sequence of development activities.

Conclusions To be competitive, organizations have the responsibility to integrate economic and environmental changes and to use new technologies, while appropriate and rational management of human resources. All theese need a strategical vision of management focused on the development of peoples and the potential of the modern worker who is flexible, creative and innovative. Addressing the human resource as one of the most valuable form of capital is very important, especially in periods of economic turbulence, when we have to find new ways to maintain competitive advantage and maximize organizational performance, and so these investments are retrived in earnings in long terms of the organization. Therefore, one of the key objectives of organizational strategies is the best capitalization of human resource, while encouraging innovation, individual research and rapid integration of new findings of science and technology at work. In the perspective of improving the adaptability and flexibility of organizations, human resource managers must adopt those practices that would satisfy both requirements of the employer regarding company performance and employee needs on building a career and employment security needs.

Literature 1. Andresen K., Gronau N. An Approach to Increase Adaptability in ERP System in Managing Modern Organizations with Information Technology // Proceedings of the 2005 Information Resources Management Association International Conference. – San-Diego, USA, 2005.

2. Dulcan, D.C. Inteligenta materiei, 3th edition. – Bucharest, 2009.

3. Haeckel, S.H. Whiteboard: How to Create and Lead an Adaptive Organization / Stephen H. Haeckel, 2004.

4. Dilts, R. Crisis, transition and transformation [Electronic resource]. – Access mode: www.ppdlearning.co.uk/ resources/ archive/ crisis-transformation. – Access date: 01.03.2011.

5. Drucker, P.F. Managing in the Next Society. – N. Y., 2002.

6. Why Adaptive Organization [Electronic resource]. – Access mode: www.1000ventures.com/ business_guide/ mgmt_inex_adaptive_org.html. – Access date: 01.03.2011.

ТРАНСФОРМАЦИЯ ТРУДА В ПОСТИНДУСТРИАЛЬНОЙ ПЕРСПЕКТИВЕ КАК ОБЪЕКТ СОЦИОГУМАНИТАРНОЙ РЕФЛЕКСИИ В.А. Белокрылова Существование человека в мире немыслимо без труда; вместе с тем, различные эпохи наделяют труд различным культурно-мировоззренческим и ценностными значениями. Цивилизационные трансформации, связанные со становлением постиндустриального общества, являются причиной существенной модификации как конкретных форм труда, так и его социокультурного статуса. В этой ситуации следует эксплицировать ключевые позиции, вокруг которых разворачиваются нынешние изменения, а также ранжировать их в соответствии с концептуально-мировоззренческими схемами.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 134 | 135 || 137 | 138 |   ...   | 193 |



© 2011 www.dissers.ru - «Бесплатная электронная библиотека»

Материалы этого сайта размещены для ознакомления, все права принадлежат их авторам.
Если Вы не согласны с тем, что Ваш материал размещён на этом сайте, пожалуйста, напишите нам, мы в течении 1-2 рабочих дней удалим его.