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ae a yee eooecoo cpoe paoa eca pya yex: T.. Aooa, B.C. oape, T.C. epyoa, M.A. eoycoa, H.. epece, .B. paya, A.A. yoa, .. Baeo, M..

Bo, B.A. apo, B.B. pee, .. ypap, T.. ypoa, H..aao, X.. poa, .B. ypoa, A..oopo,..yo, B.B. Maceo, .. Hecepo, T.M. Oy, T.M. acyxoa,.H. epoo,.. a, A.C. oy pye.

Mecopoee axoc aco eo paoe pypaco eeaooco oac aao-Cpco eeaooco po. Heo pao eoeco ooe pypoe ooeo cpyype I opa. Ceepo-aocoe ecopoee pypoeo ooeo ooeo cpyype IV opa, ocoe ocoy ac Apaypcoo o, pacooeoo epe epxepcoo eapoa. B peeax o III opa, poe Ceepo-aocoo, ec ecoe coceo aocoe eeoce o IV opa, pacooee eocpeceo aay y.

Ha oa Ceepo-aocoo ecopoe cp opaoa yx cpyypx oeco: opcoo caaoo yaea eoo-aoocoo ocaooo exa oe ooc o 1651-1714 coe o o 1920-1967 a eo opyex.

Heeococ ocaooo exa pecaea opoa op epa (ac B), eco c (ac T) oyco o (ac 1 2). Opaoa op epa e pooe oaoe pacpocpaee, ocycy coox acx oex cyo yaea. pecaea opa co popoa y opoa ecpo opac, peoa, oa aepo. Bopac ooe opeeec paco, ooc x o oa eec o e o 100 oee epo.

pce ooe ecoaco aea a opoax yaea, op epa pecae eco aoco ca. Ooe eco c pa cao opyeo ac oo coa cpyyp a ee ocoo pe, oa ooc x eec o 0 o 30-42 . Ca pecaea epaoep epeoae apo, aepoo ecao. aoca ca o ooec paa opaeec a e ac eaocy epxeaocy oc. Heaoca oca ae ce ooe oyco o ayooo a. Boyca oa, cooecya eoe-ocopcoy epcoy pyca, pecaea ecao-c ppeo-opc ooe, oope aco eeaooco paoe opay ocoo poy opo . Ha Ceepo-aoco oa opo pa a coax o opcoo yaea ooc ocycye coox acx x o. B oe coeo pa poy opo o cocay eoopoe, pcoox acx eo papee peoaa ecae opo, a a opyex ce. Oa ooc opoa o 42 . ayooa aa caaec a aepoa. o opacy oa cooecye a ocoo pyca. Mooc e o 10 .

ae e Ceepo-aocoo ecopoe oocc cpyypo-cpapaecoy, ooec-opaeoy a. Ocoo ocoeoc eooecoo cpoe aca, ocoe poecc papao, ec ooe cpoee aca 2 c yxyeo paoo xapaepco o cpae c 1. Ocoo ocoeoc aca B ec peo paeoe ooe cpoee.

O yaco pacooe o ac ecopoe oxaae 55 ca. Ha oa ooo yaca pecae ac 1, 2, B. B eo eooecoe cpoee yaca oo-poex pao ooc ee cxooe cpoee co ce ecopoee, o oeae peoa peeoo opy ooo yaca.

Bpaa exoo ooc oeae eooo-ec o-xec yco a Ceepo-aocoo, a py pyx ecopoe acoo eoo paoa.

Bo opo ae Papaoa Ceepo-aocoo ecopoe aa ocox exooecx oaaee pecaeo eyee cocoe papao a ceo Ceepo-aocoo ecopoe, a ooo yaca. Mecopoee papaaaec c 1984 oa ae ae pex aco: 1, 2, T. ac papaaac eo ceo ca.

Macaa oa e pxoc a ceo o papao p oope 46,9% eax oopa 10,9%. ae poc o e oycoe o oxao aaco oa caa a aao ae. B 1998 oy oe ooec ca yee cpeecyoe oop oc. aoe epope ooo ye oy e o cpae c pey oo. Bceo oopao 78,1% o aax eaex aaco (H) 35% o aax eooecx aaco (H).

Boa oax caax oac a opo oy papao.

Ooeoc yeaec o epe yee oeo aa. Cpeeooa ooeoc cocaa 80,4%. Booeo aop (BH) oc 1,5. poaeo 90% opooo oea aco.

epe cyaaoe ca ye 1985 oy. B acoee pe o yaco ooc paype. Bcoe e oopa e coopoyx aco , a ae oee ece cce papao (oa cea ca, coe e paypa oaoe aoee) opoyx aco oo a ca acao o a ec e ocoe. Maca e o coca 7,8% o H. cpoe apaae oopo e cpaeo coe e coe aaco coopoyx aco 1 aco 2 oe a coo ao e cp epexo III ca papao. Texooece oaae yaca e oca aaox oaaee o ecopoe.

Pc. 1. pa papao ooo yaca Papaoa ooo yaca eac aao c . Cpe e oopa eaex aaco o ooy yacy coca 6,2%. Te oopa ep o (1985.) poeo cyaa ae coca ooo 3%. Maca e oopa e 11,2% pxoc a 1990 o p oee cooa aaco () pao 51,1%. B 1999 .

e oopa coca 3,2% o H.

Ocyce eooo epoa o e oop o oc ooo yaca BH. Haaa ooeoc a 01.01.86. cocaa ooo 0,4% (pc. 1.). B epo papao ooeoc ea ycoy ee pocy. Ha 01.09.99. ooeoc cocaa 85,7% (c. pc.

1).

6231 0.8 6177 0.6433 6181 0.6156 6158 6440 0.0.Pc. 2. apa pao aaco ooo yaca Ceepo-aocoo ecopoe pacca eaee aac yaca o xapaepca ece, papaoa coe pe aapo.C., Haapo A.., epo .. py. eaee aac paccac a cpeee apeecoe o ce eoa. Peya paceo oaa, o p ao ccee oec a ac poex oaaee ocy e yacc. e o c oe ae eye eeaceoc ocpoe ap pao eooecx aaco c peee eo oaea B.C., ycoepecoao apo P.M. Ha ocoe paccax ax ocpoe ap pao aaco. o oo oopa aaco coca 40-50% oa yaca. oa ac aeaex ca x o a peoeoaa opao eeopaye ooe.

B pee ae Maeaecoe oepoae epoeeopayeo oec a ac c cooae ooox cce a ocoe aoxopa apaa poeeo aeaecoe oepoae epoeeopayeo oec a poye ac. Texoo opao paox o OC aaec aae pacopa peaea cay, poaae eo ac yepo oc ocaoe ca peapoa, . e. oye e paoo oe. Haoee aex peyao yaec ocy p pee ceeo aa OC coopoaee poac c cooae aepo exoo. Oao ao coco aa peoeyec p paceeoc aca a cx epee, . e. xopoe yeoc eoo papea aca. aaa peyao pee exoo peoeyec poo eoep ca o poyo oe aca o oce oec. oepa oo oe eoc poeex epop ae cpae oe eeoa aco pao exooe oec.

o-xece p coa apepa pa o coopoaex oax poyoo aca c oo eeopayeo cocaa PB-3-1 (.A. Ceo) aac o, o o oece oeo eepayp aca (700 e) pocxo xecoe pepaee ooeo c opaoae e paa oc a. p x eepaypax apa, xo coca OC, poyec oo cpee c opaoae aaa o cxee CO(NH2)2 + H2O 2NH3 + CO2.

Bec aa opaye eoy ccey (pH ~ 9-10,5). p o xopa a (opoo peaea PB-3-1) opayec e pooca a AlCl3 + 3NH3 + H2O Al(OH )3 +3NH Cl.

ea opaoa e ocoo pyec copoc paoe apaa. aee ep aa xopa apaa pcyc co a opeeeo cocae 134 /o 0. cepeaa acoc pee eeopaoa o eepayp peea paoe eopoa .M., eaoa A.A. p.

Maeaeca oe eeopaoa paoo oe ca cpoac a ocoe popaoo oeca TM+ (.M. eopo) oo, o opee oae oe aaaex peaeo, c oo copo, cpoopoa eoc opao aeaex ca c pyo.

Oa poecca coco o, o pacca oe aa OC, oop po ce oe pecoc aca e oee 25-35% o cxoo, p acao paa po pecoc oce opao.

peaaea aeaeca oe poecca ec pae eop eex opaoo. Pae aaec yee o-xecx ocoeoce eeopaoa peaea PB-3-1.

Pc. 3. aoe oppe opaoa e peaea PB--1. cxoa oepa xopcoo a C3=0,04. Ha pcye ae pecaeo pe xoa cce a paoece ( acax) Ha pc. 3 pecaea aa ee cocaa peaea opco cpee p cpoao cxoo ae C3, o p pax aex oepa C1. pecaee peya oaa ae pex peo a poecca. epexoe eece pe, paee pe, ee oc p. eece pe 1-5 cooecy pey peaa eeopaoa c o xopa a. eeopaoae o pee poeae a oee pe (t 1000 ).

B peyae pea ocaec epopeapoa A1C13, ooy oepa opayeoo e ecoa. Bopo pe (pe 6-9 a pc. 3) cooecye ooy peapoa xopa a, o ae c o peee pea (t 1000 ). Tpe, aoee oa pe, oopoy cooecy pe 10-14, xapaepyec o peapoae xopa a eo peee pea (12< t <300 ). oy pey cooecy cxoe coca cce 0,01

Ta opao, peoeyee pace oaa, o cyecye oaoe coooee oepa xopcoo a apaa eeopaye oo opaoa e opco cpee. Pea oo aoo cocaa pocxo a aoe pe, a xop a ooc cyae pea, .e. peyae opayec acaoe oeco e. paccopeoo cya o coooee pao 0,875 e.

Pc. 4. Bop oax apaepo opao ca ooe a ocoe aoxopa.

oppoae eex apepo e o cex poacax aeo e a eee po pecoc aeaeo ca oce opao. Peya pacea oea aa oo a po pecoc pao ca oce opao pee a pc.

4. oeceo oe oea aa oo paccaoc cpeeapaoe ooee pecoc poaco o cpee o acy e.

a) ) ) Pc. 5. Cee paa po pecoc peyae opao aeaeo ca p pao oepa aoxopa oo.

Peya pacea cpeeapaoo ooe pacxoo poaco o cpeeo pacxoa, cooecye cya ycao apepo oo, yx pex poacax, pee a pc. 4. Oaoy oey aa oo cooecye aoe aee cpeeapaoo ooe acaa cee paa po pecoc. oo c coepae aoxopa C3 = 0,04 o cya cooecye oppoa eeoo apepa oo cao coopoaeo poace (c. pc.5,a), a peoeye oe aa oo cocae 72-76 3. oee oeppoax cocao C3 = 0,acaoe paae po pecoc aaec p oppoa ycox apepo yx poacax (c. pc.5,) cooecye oey aa peaea 98-130 3. acoc oaoo oea oopo oo, cee paa po pecoc acoo cce o oepa aoxopa oo pee e (c. pc.5).

ae, peee a pc. 4, oo pa oae ae cocaa oo paepa oopo p aoe ooex yco ooecoo (a pacxoo acc opeex peaeo) exooecoo (aee oe pecoc ca e oee e a opeeey ey, apep, 40%) xapaepa.

Pc. 6. Pacee ae o po ooceo pecoc ca 6142 o opao oce opao cocao PB--1 o peeo eoe pacca payc pooe eeopayeo cocaa poacax. Aa poopoa peyao opao ca eeopay cocao oaa, o paae po pecoc opacae c poco oea aa peaea. Oa oe aa opeeec exooecoo yco, o oce opao cyapa pecoc ca e oa aa e 60-70% o cxoo e o opao ca.

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