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Ha paax pyoc AH AECAHP AHATOEB APOEHE, CTAHOBEHE PABTE POMEHHOO POBOCTBA HEOTOPX XOPOPAHECX POTOB (HA PMEPE OAO AXMPOM) (Ceaoc: 02.00.13 Heex, 07.00.10 cop ay ex ABTOPEEPAT ccepa a cocae yeo cee aaa execx ay a 2003 2 Paoa oea co ocyapceo eo execo yepcee Hayo-pooceo oee Xexopo.

Hay pyooe: .x.., poeccop C. C. oc Oae ooe: ..., poeccop P. P. Xay ..., c..c. E. A. aoa Beyee pepe: Hayo-cceoaec exooec cy epo peyopo poca (HT AH P), . a aa ccepa cococ 29 ape 2003 . 14 aco a acea ccepaooo coea 212.289.01 co ocyapceo eo execo yepcee o apecy: . a, y. ocoao, 1.

C ccepae oo oaoc oee coo ocyapceoo eoo execoo yepcea.

Aopeepa paoca 28 apa 2003 .

e cepeap ccepaooo coea, poeccop Cp A.M.

3 Ayaoc pao Bopa ooa XX ea xapaepyec yp, ec poco pooca opee poyo eex ocooo opaecoo cea. O aoee ax ao paaxc apae ec pooco xecx cpec a pace, a opao, xopopaecx coee. poe oo, pae xopyeoopo x pooe axo pooe peee aece pacopee, acaopo, ooepo cooepo, pacee p. B o e pe, a pyee eo caoc oe, o poc acao pooca pee x coee oe peca opeeey ypoy opyae cpe, ocoy p x pooce cooa eeo opayc o- cyepooca, (oxope, oxopeo-1,4-oca, oxopeoypa p.). B o c oa oea aoc ayaoc ye cop caoe pa ex poecco xopopaecoo cea, oop oocc pooca ooxopycyco co, ooxopaa, xopaa xopaa, coae 19501960-e o a OAO axpo. copec aa oa pooca pa xopopaecx poyo a OAO axpo ooe copypoa ocoe ee apae pa eex XXI ee, o ooc oeae aaa copeeo ay ex.

Paoa oea cooec c ayo-execo popao Mopaoa P Haye cceoa Bce o oac x xecx poyo (pa Mopaoa P o 08.02.2000. 391).

e pao:

- yee copecx aceo apoe, caoe pa pooc ooxopycyco co, xopao xopaa a OAO axpo;

- cceoae a pooca x xopopaecx coee o accopey oay;

- aa exo-exooeco paoaaopco eeoc epop o peocpy exooecx poecco oe pooeoc, ce epoeoc ceecooc;

- yee exooecx eoo, oeceax ey ocy cox o oax ooecy eoacoc poecco xopopaecoo cea.

Haya oa:

Bepe a ocoe ye apxx oyeax aepao oe aa ocox ao caoe pa pooc ooxopycyco co, xopao xopaa a OAO axpo.

Bepe oeco poaapoaa eeoc eepoexecx, poex cpoex opaa, cy aoa o peocpy, execoy epeoopye coepecoa ocox poecco xopopaecoo cea a OAO axpo.

Hae poaapoa aop, oaae aoee cyeceoe e a oee eoc pooca ooxopycyco co, xopao xopaa.

paeca aoc:

Peya pao axo peee p epceo apoa oepa, peocpy pa pooca xopopaecx poyo eexecoo cp a OAO axpo.

Maepa ccepaoo pao coyc p poee eox ceapcx a co cyea ceaoc Xeca exoo opaecx eec HT.

Apoa pao:

Peya pao pecae a II Meyapoo oepe Copeee poe cop ececoa oac x, xeco exoo eoo ea (5-7 eap 2001., .

a); XIV Meyapoo ayo-execo oepe Xece pea, peae poecc aooao x (7-op 2001., . a); XV Meyapoo ayo-execo oepe Xece pea, peae poecc aooao x (7-10 op 2002., . a); III Meyapoo oepe Copeee poe cop ececoa oac x, xeco exoo eoo ea (2002., . a);

Bcepoccco aoo oepe aa oexoo, x xecx exoo (17 a 2002., . Tep); I Bcepoccco ayo INTERNET-oepe epa ay ceo opaoa oac o- opaeco x exa ooax cce (25-27 eap 2002., . a).

ya:

o ee ccepa oyoao 4 ca, 6 eco oao.

Oe cpyypa pao:

ccepa oea a 142 cpaax aocoo eca, a 41 ay, 26 pcyo coco ee, pex a, oo cca epayp. epa aa ae aepa o coa pa pooca ooxopycyco co a OAO axpo. Bopa aa ocea cceoa caoe oeca pooca xopao a OAO axpo. B pee ae aec copec aa pa pooca xopaa.

OCHOBHOE COEPAHE PAOT aa I. a pa pooca ooxopycyco co a OAO axpo.

B IV apae 1958. a co xeco aoe (e OAO axpo) o aepeo cpoeco eeo cyaa pooco ooxopycyco co (MX), ocpo eoxoo yca oeecex epo. B ocoe poea ea cceoa, poeee aae 1950-x . HO (.Moca).

poea ooc o oapo MX cocaa 3000 /.

Peaoaa exoo pooca MX ocoaa a pea pxopea c oo pcyc cepo co, p eepaype 150-170C.

H2SOCHCI=CCI2 + 2H2O CICH2COOH + 2HCI pooco MX ae paa pxopea c oceye ayyo ce peaoo acc eee MX e pacaa (pc. 1). Pacaey MX apa oye 70%-oo ooo pacopa o epepcaoa coy aee e opoa.

CHCl=CCl2 H2SOH2O (ap) A 1.paa pxopea HCl = 80% Peaoa acca Acop H2SO4(opa.) paca 2. Bayy poo- Hepaa c ee ClCH2COOH 70%-o paca pacopa OC ClCH2COOH MX epepcaa MX Pc.1 o-cxea oye MX paa exooeca cxea ycooo oeca pooca MX peea a pc.2.

HCl 4 Ha acoy Ha acop TX TX TX 20 TX pooco epo H2SO4 96% H2SO4 65-68% 8 ap TX 12 Pc.2. paa exooeca cxea pooca MX: 1-peaoa ooa;

2,4,5,12,16-xoo; 3-poa a; 6-aopaee; 7-eoc; 8-poeyo cop;

9,10,11,15- coe oo; 13,14,17,21-cop; 18-aapa; 19-yep-aoe; 20-cece.

Oee pxopea epepe o apo (170-175C) pocxoo peaoo ooe (o. 1) pcyc 60%- cepo co eee 5 aco. epe ccey poeyox eoce (o. 2,3,4,5,6) epopeapoa pxope apac peaop, a a, coepa xopc oopo - a ocy. Peaoa acca epe eoc (o. 8) ocyaa o cox oo (o. 9,10,11,15) ae MX, oce oxae epepcaa (o. 18) copaac aoee (o. 19) o cope (o. 20, 21) oye 70%-oo ooo pacopa. Cepa coa oo c epe ccey xooo (o. 12) copo (o. 14) opaaac peaoy ooy.

Poc opeoc MX 1958-1963 . cypoa cyeceoe coepecoae peocpy exooecoo poecca. Oe, o p poex eocao exooecx eoeo e oo o aooe aae a 1958. (480 a, 76 a), o oce x ycpae, ye c 1959. ex peypo epepa aoe oaae (pc. 3).

o 1958 1959 1961 1962 480 852 2760 2900 a 75,79 1000,7 2902 3186 a Pc. 3. aa yca MX 1958-1963.

B o epo (1958-1963 .) peocpy oepa a opao ocyc ca oe pxopea ayyo c. B acoc, oe ceye pao:

- aea yyx pyopooo, o oop pacoppoac pxope MX, a aooe coe;

- ycaoa 500-pox aopaeee (oeee pxopea o, Byc xopcoo oopoa) eco 50-pox;

- oa yx ooex acoco epea opao cepo co.

- yeee c 200 o 400 cee oeopa oce oo c;

- aea ayyx oye coo ocpy a cooee coe opye xoo;

- yeee cee pyopooo epeoa cepo co c oo c, o ooo oc pooeoc.

Boee pao oo oec pooco MX 1963. o 5000 (pc.3).

Cey ao pa oeca MX a OAO axpo c o cyaa e 1963 . opo oepe pooca, oopa aa p ox exooecx c oe aoo ooc 11000 /. o ooo ye 1963 . yc 8000 MX epo 1964-1973 . oec oe pooca MX o 24000 /.

B epo 1964-1973 . a pax cax exooecoo poecca ca cooa cee oeoe pyopoo, a ca paa pxopea coe py aee a opoacoe. epocy ca, oopo o ooeo oopyoae, ae a yy, coepa pe. Ha ca ayyo c o ycaoeo oee pooeoe oopyoae (xoo, ayye acoc p.). Oxo c pxope ca oaa eocpeceo oo oe.

B 1974 . aeeo oe oeo yca a poeea opea peocpy, oopa aaac aee ocox exooecx aapao (oo oe c, ayye acoc p.) a oee pooee.

oce aepe pao yc MX oee o 30000 /. o 1987 . oe pooca capoac a ypoe 28000-32000 /.

(pc. 4).

31 30 o Pc. 4. Byc MX a OAO axpo.

c Oe pooca, C oa 1980-x . ooeca peopa epexo po ooe, a ae cyecee ee opee epo oaa cyeceoe e a c cooeceo pooco MX.

Oao, aa c 1995., ca pooca MX aec, e ca peeo oep opeee (1999 .), yc ocee o cocae 5000-6000 /. (pc. 5).

18 6 6 6 5 o Pc. 5. aa yca MX 1988-2001 .

a 40-e epo pooca MX copae opoa pacxo cp epopecypco a 1 oapo poy (a.1).

Taa Pacxo cp epopecypco a 1 MX Haeoae Pacxo, Tpxope 1545 2283 1691 1510 1491 1490 H2SO4 240 848 312 198 173 169 Na2CO3 (coa apoaa) 40 110 40,1 10 6,1 4,5 3,epoep, B 58 58 45,2 110 87 70 Boa, 3 230 233 168 115 110 108 ap, a 3,9 3,11 5,9 3 3 3 2,a ce oopaoo cooa H2SO4 ee oeco yaoc copa oee e 2 paa, 10 pa cc pacxo Na2CO3 (ca epaa), 1,52 paa copaea opeoc oe oo ape (2000 . o cpae c 1963 .). ocye apaep , /.

Byc MX 1958 .

1963 .

1974 .

1981 .

1993 .

2000 .

o poey oa a ocee 5-10 e ec eaeo.

ocee ece xapaepyc ec paoa, apae a ocy cox o aox poco, oope ocoo coepa xopyeoopo (a. 2) Taa Coca aox poco pooca MX Haeoae Coepae, ooea /3 % Tpxope 0,5 46,Tepaxope 4,0 28,Cepc ap 0,5 11,Cep ap 0,3 8,Xopc oopo 0,2 4,MX 0,02 0,C 1974 o 2000 . yaoc 1,5 paa ye oeco cox o a 1 MX (c 38,3 o 20,8 ), a ae 2 paa o coepae MX C2HCl3 (a. 3).

Taa oeco cox o pooca MX oeco cox o * o /. / MX 1963 310 61,4* 1972 407 33,9* 1974 919 38,3* 1980 911 29,4* 1989 500 27,8** 1992 356 25,4** 1999 125 20,9** 2000 104 20,8** * MX 4 /; C2HCl3 0,2 / ** MX 2 /; C2HCl3 0,1 / B ocoo o o ocyo a ce oee yoo oc opaoao H2SO4, oopa oce yae opaecx pece opaaec ooy oe aa II. copece ace opaa pooca xopao a OAO axpo.

yoeope opeoc apooo xoca epyx cpecax peaeax a OAO axpo c 1964 .

aa yc ooxopaa (MX). poeo peycapaoc ae oyee p eoxooc paax aoo pooca xopaa (XA). poea ooc o MXA XA cocaa cooeceo 3200 1200 /. Texoo pooca MXA a ocoaa a cyoxoppoa eoa, apoa poeyooo eocyoxopa o eocyaa c ocey xoppoae eo apeo co (pc. 6).

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