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1,0,0,0,0,0 400 800 1200 1600 co Peoca aoo a Re Pcyo 5 - acoc eoc poecca acop xopcoo oopoa oo o yco poee cepea:

- yooa acaa; - yooa acaa c epxe e; ooc opoe: a - U = 8,6 3/(2/); - U = 18,3/(2/); - U = 29,4 3/(2/) Aa pao acoce (yv,HCl)-1 = f (1/Re) oox o yoox acao, oope c p , cxo aaa oopa, oo a, o ycox poox cepeo:

- caaeoe m/xv,HCl, pecaee coo yooe copoee accoepeocy o ae, pao 0, o ec ooe copoee accoepeae cocpeooeo aoo ae;

- apaep E e ac o copoc ee o a (acopea), o ec ec ocoo eo.

oeco ooeoo HCl-aa, / Ta opao, oe ae o accoepeae yoox acaax p acop xopcoo oopoa oo aooyoo ooa ocac pepa ypaee yv,HCl = Re/E, (7) e E = 0,030 yooo aca E = 0,017 yooo aca c epxe e.

paee (7) ooe pacpocpa peya cceoa accooea, oyee c cooae oeo cce a y peay cec c yeo c ae oeoo oea accoepea peao cec yv,i oeo cec yv,HCl:

yv,i = yv,HCl (Dy,i / Dy,HCl)2/3, (8) e Dy,i Dy,HCl - oe oeypo y aoo ae i-o ooea peao cec xopcoo oopoa oeo cec, epeocx ey aa poecce accooea, 2/.

Ha ocoa peyao, oyex p cceoa poaecx accooex xapaepc yooo aca yooo aca c epxe e, apocaox ypae, oyex acoe paoe a papaoaa eoa poeoo pacea poeoo oooo aapaa c yoo acaa oox o. e poeoo pacea ec opeeee aapx paepo - aepa co - accooeo acaoo ce aapaa, aoeo yoo acao eea paoo a paepa.

He peea o-cxea poeoo pacea oooo aapaa c yooo acao.

o-cxea poeoo pacea oooo aapaa c yooo acao cxoe ae pacea:

a) aee ooe P, a ) eepaypa ooo T, ) accoe oo aoo G o L a o ooe, /ac ) cco i ooeo, cocax aoe oo ) coca ooeo p paox ycox (P T):

- oeypa acca MI, /o;

- ooc aa oc , i, , i, /3;

- oc aa oc , i, , i ac - eoeoc aa oc cr. i, c, i, /() - eopoooc aa oc . i . i, B/() - oepxocoe aee i, H/ Papaoa co eeo cpyyp co yooo aca c aa eoepec paepa: l, e, :

- c yoooo eea aca - c opoaoo pa eeo aca Pace eoepecx apaepo acaooo co:

- a yoox eeo o opoa drop, p, ;

- coa opoaoo pa eeo aca-lop.p, ;

- co yoox eeo, paeex opoao py o 1 ep, n,p, 1/ Pace aepa acaooo co: Dac, 1/1/ G2 0,16 L lg = 5,322 -1,017 G e g (16 Dac -1)2 Dac 3 Bop aepa acaoo oo: Do, caapoo pa ae, pax drop p, , -aeo oeo, e Dac Pace eoepecx apaepo acaooo co:

- co yoox eeo opoao py acaooo co aepo Dac - N.p =2 Dac / dop.p - cyapa oa eex aopo opoao py yoox eeo acaoo coe aepo Dac Scy.e = 0,785(16 Dac -1) Dac e Pace poaecx apaepo ooo a:

- copoc aoo a eex aopax opoaoo pa G eeo aca Wr =, /c 3600 Scy.e W d.yo - co Peoca aoo a Rer =.

L - yea ooc opoe aca U =, 3/(2 ) Sac Pace paecoo copoe e co co yooo aca 354,8 - oe copoe aca op = Re1, - paecoe copoee e co co Pop op W2 opoaeo aca 1 =, a/ ac 2 d Pace yepae cocooc yooo aca:

0,H = 0,0119 Re U0,06, 3/ Pace co acaooo co:

- oe y HC1-aa aoo ae oeo cce 2oyx + HC1 - oa (p P,T poeoo poecca) Dy HC1, / - oe y i-o ooea peao aoo cec (p P, T poeoo poecca) Dy,i 2/ - oe oe accooa aoo ae acop xopcoo oopoa oo aooyo cec (oea ccea).

yv, HC1 = 33,3 Re, o HC1/(3) - oe oe accooa aoo ae poecca eaoo epeoca i-o ooea peao aoo cec Dy. i yv i = yv.HC1 (D )2/3, o/(3 ) y.HC- oeco i-o ooea, epeocoe ey aa poecce accooea ji , o/ (paccaec o aaco ypae) ji, - oe acaooo co Vac =, Myv,I Vac - coa acaooo co lac =, 0,785 Do Bop co aca oo oo Io, caapoo pa ae, pax Iop,p. , - aeo oeo, e 1ac.

B ae 3 pee peya papao poex ocpy aapao c yoo acaa peya x poocex ca.

oaoo poepoa poeoo oooo acaooo aapaa eoxoo ya e poooo epeea acae a ey oea accoepea.

cceoae poooo epeea yoox acaax poooc, coy eo ycoo oa eeyeo paccepa aopa oo o a, oaae a opoee aca c ocey epee coepa aopa xoo ooe. B aece aopa cooac o pacop xopcoo ap, coepae oopoo ooe oc epoc oyoepec.

epe oepa paccepa pooc epoec, aa c oea ycoo oa aopa aaa oeo ooo oa aopa oo ycao. Peyao epe ac pa pacpeee pee pea aopa coe cceyeo aca C-pa oa a ycoe oyee o cocay ooa opoe. cepe pooc a yoox acaax oox o ycox poooa a-oc p cpoao ae ooc opoe U = 18,6 3/(2/) ee apy o aoo ae aaoe 1,28

oyee cepeao ae oea poooo epeea o ae DL, 2/c pecae a pcye 6 acoc o oeoo pacxoa aoo a Gv.

Bea oea poooo epeea yeaec c poco apy o aoo ae, o ceecye o eca poecca paecoo aoec ooo oapyx a acae. C pyo copo, cceoae poecca acop xopcoo oopoa oo oaao, o co e epeoca, peayex cceyex acaax, paec ocoo e ac a o pacxoa acopea, a o pacxoa aoo a. oye peya oo oc eae e poooo epeea o ae a eoc accoepea yoox acaax cceoax o.

0,0,0,0 4 8 12 16 Oe pacxo oyxa Gv, 3/ Pcyo 6 - acoc oea poooo epeea o ae o yco poee cepea:

1 - yooa acaa; 2 - yooa acaa c epxe e;

- ooc opoe U = 18,6 3/(2/); - ooc opoe U = 29,4 3/(2/) Moo a, o e poooo epeea o ae a eoc pao yoox acao poex aapaax oo peepe cooa ypae (6) (7) eocpeceo pacea co co aca peaoo oooo aapaa c yooo acao.

paa cooa yooo aca poex aapaax oepa ee eoc p paoe apex exooecx cpeax, o eae acay ao ocpy epce oeo cceoa c ocey poe epee.

Ha pooce yooa acaa a epe epea ooe oy ocaooo eeoo ooea xopcoo aa opaoao aaoo oc( pcyo 7). epepaaae L epeea D, /c oe poooo exooec oo poe coox xopopaecx ooeo coep ac oca poy ocoe, opayec peaopax cea xopcoo aa aaaec aaoo oc.

poe coepa ex pece ape epepaaaeo ooe po cpoy ce paoococooc oapo oo, oopyoao apea oa ycpoca, o cao cee oy xopcoo aa poo ae eo oep.

poe + oce peocpy, cao c xopc a aeo apeo a yooy acay, paoa oo oy xoppoa + capoaac, pepac ace xopc a ocao a ocy yeac cee ee eeoo ooea - xopcoo aa 4,3 paa.

ocoy poee pee p ope ocpy yooo aca pac o papao eo poeoo pacea a ocoa epx peyao ceox ca, Oyo ccepaoo paoe oe poe pace aa poea oepa, oop oep paoc xoppoa px pee o opy ocpy yooo aca. paa pooceo cyaa Pcyo 7 - Cxea oo oeppoao oo oy oy xopcoo aa eee ecox e oepa oy ocox ocoeoce ocpy yooo aca y cooc ae acaooo co ape.

Ha pcye 8 oaaa poe exooeca cxea oo epaa xopcoo oopoa pepypye poee, peBo pacop NaOH caa coo epa pec aapa, aoe ce peypo yooo aca.

C e epepacpeee ooo aoo o a, ce aca oy oepy py ooceo pya. cooae aca ooe poe + HCl c pacxo eo a 42%, yy pe epaa pepypyeo Opaoa poea 5 pa ye o pacop epeo poe.

NaOH Ha pooce xopa Pcyo 8 ooa ye aa opx peaox ao, epaa xopcoo oopoa poee ocyax peaopa ocxoppoa ea, aaoc ocooe cee eoc ooe xopcoo oopoa peaox ao, oycoeoe ocee apacae apeo aaoo oo apoa ooe e aca aaaopa, yoc peaopa. oeca ce paoococooc apeo aaoo oo acope oaoc ooe oeco ayceco co, o poo pocy cpex apa.

ycpae p, Peao ax apyee opaoo a pea pao aaooo aapaa, oe pace ocpy Bo pacop NaOH yooo aca, coy papaoay eoy; ooe epe oa yooo aca, oope ycaoe e ac aapaa a ope oo, e pocxo coceo poecc aa (pcyo 9). poocee ca oeppoao Peao a aaoo oo, poeee + HCl eee ecox ece, Opaoa ocey poaec ocop o pacop aapaa oaa:

NaOH - cee acop xopcPcyo 9 Cxea oo oo oopoa cocaa 0,99, o aa ao ocxoppoa ooo c pacxo ayceco co acope a 16%;

- cocoe oo yooo aca e eoc, aae ac aaaopa ocycoao;

- epacooee ape ae e oepc apaca apoa ooe aca aaaopa, o eo eco o oepa ocpy aapaa.

poeee ca oep cocooc yooo aca caooe oaa oooc ee cooa aece eoo oooo ycpoca, pecyeo pocoy eex ac c aoo ao yp accooeoo aapaa.

OCHOBHE PETAT BBO 1 Papaoaa oa ocpy peypo aca, cocaeo opoax po yoox eeo, oeceaa ec oa ey aoo o aa p epepaoe ooo c oe coepae exooecx ape, papaoa aea aeo.

2 cceoaa cpyypa ooo aoo o a cox papaoax acao, ycaoeo cyecoae pex xapaepx poaecx peo aoec oapyx a: 1 - eycooo pea c pocoo aox cpy epe eee aop e caoo apoaoo aoec; 2 - ycooo pea apoaoo aoec a eex aopax; 3 - cooeoo pea paoo cpyo-pooooo aoec a eex aopax c ypyae aooo ooa eax acaooo co, opaoax yoo eea aca. caoe pee apyo o ooa a, oeae aoy3 pey aoec: 3 0,18 3/>G>1,53 3/; 2 1,53 />G>4,0 3/; 3 4, />G>12,17 3/.

3 cceoa ocoe poaece xapaepc yooo aca c opeeee eoo aaoa p apyax o aoo o ae 3,843/

4 opoao yooo aca, ee e p epe yoa, opeee poaece xapaepc:

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