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poe yaaoo e ococa, ocpy yooo aca oa oecea oey cooc caooce, peopaa aoee ape a oepxoc oax eeo. Opaa ee o a o oepxoc yoox eeo eaoo aoec acaoo coe pye oe acox o, e oy aaac eee oaypye ac ape, pcycyx epepaaaex exooecx ooax. poe oo, a ce opoe peoo ee paeop aox cpy, ceax epe eee aop oac o yoo eea, ocee yy paoa a ee ooe ee, pecye pocoy eex ac ape, oaax eco ayc ye eco (apep, ee pa oca), o ye pecoa ae aapaa e, xapaepoy p cooa oca peypx acao cyecyx poex o.

C e cepeao oe exaa aoec aoo o a coe yooo aca o oeo yaoe cceoae cpyyp ooo aoecyx a. Oeo cceoa o yooo aca yooo aca c epxe e, ooee opaecoo cea. cceoae poooc p cpoao ae ooc opoe poo aaoe ae oeoo pacxoa aoo 3a. o oeeo, o p oex pacxoax aoo a Gv > 1,53 /ac aaoc ycaoee yco eycooo aoec a eex aopax cceyex yoox acao. p oex pacxoax aoo a Gv > 4,0 3/ac yooo aca Gv > 9,28 3/ac yooo aca c epxe e aaoc ycaoee pea ycooo apoaoo aoec a eex aopax. p oex pacxoax aoo a Gv > 12,3/ac yooo aca Gv > 20,38 3/ac yooo aca c epxe e aaoc ycaoee eoo pea poaecoo aoec a p x poooo ee eex aopax, copooaeoo ceppoae ac ooa o a aoo ooe. p ycaoe aoo poaecoo pea, aaoo a peo cpyo-pooooo aoec a, oee aca paec ocycy oac, oopx e ee eca aoocoe aoece, aaec ypya ooa aoo a oacx o yoo eea aca. caoee cpyo-pooooo pea ec aoee aop oecee eoo accooea yooo acae, ocoy acoe ceppoae o a aoo ooe po aeoy yee peao oepxoc oaa a ooceo eoepeco oepxoc acaox yoox eeo. aee copoc ee aoo a eex aopax, p oopo aaec ycaoee eoo cpyo-pooooo pea cceyex yoox acaax, cooecye ae peco copoc aaa pea oca, o oepeo pace cepea a.

pacea ae peco copoc ee aoo a eex aopax yooo aca, oeae acye pea cpyo-pooooo aoec, peaaec cooa ypaee ceyeo a:

Wp L lg [ ( )0,16] = C1 - C2( G )1/4 ( )1/8, (1) g d' e Wp - peca copoc aooo ooa eex aopax yooo aca, oeaa acye pea cpyo-pooooo aoec, /c;

d - ae aep eex aopo, ;

, - ooc aoo o a, /3;

- aeca oc o a, ac 103;

L, G - accoe oo o aoo a, /;

C1, C2 ocoe.

cpyo-pooooo pea opeee coe ae C1, C2.

p aex C1 = -1,821 C2 = 1,017,xapaepx cceyex acao, ae peco copoc oy pacca c ooceo opeoc e oee 3%.

poeeo epee paecoo copoe yepae cocooc cceyex acao ycox poooa a-oc a oeo ccee oyx-oa p pax oex pacxoax aoo a Gv ecox cpoax aex oeoo pacxoa o a Lv.

paecoe copoee acao epoc epea aoepo o paoc oaa ao ae, ycaoex o oa acaooo co. C e cpae o epeo paecoe copoee aco aca oe Paa paepo 25x25 .

Peya cceoa paecoo copoe acao pee a pcye 3 e acoc paecoo copoe e co co aca P/lac (a/) o ooceoo pacxoa aoo a Go p ocoo ooc opoe acaooo co U = 18,6 3/(2/).

yoox acao ea Go = Gv / Gv,p pecae coo ooee oeoo pacxoa aoo a cepee pacxoy aoo a, cooecyey pecoy ae copoc aoo a Wp eex aopax.

aca oe Paa Go = Gv/ Gax pecae coo ooee oeoo pacxoa aoo a cepee pacxoy aoo a, cooecyey oe axea.

a ceye oyex cepeax acoce P/lac o apy o aoo ae:

- aaoe oocex apyo 10% < Go <60% paecoe copoee yooo aca oaaoc e paecoo copoe yooo aca c epxe e;

- aaoe oocex apyo 65% < Go <80% paecoe copoee yoox acao oox o oaaoc paec oao;

0 20 40 60 Ooce pacxo oyxa Go, % Pcyo 3 - Cpaee paecoo copoe acao p oaoo ooc opoe U = 18,6 3/(2/): 1 yooa acaa; 2 yooa acaa c epxe e; 3 acaa oe Paa 25x25 - p oaox oocex apyax paecoe copoee aca oe Paa oaaoc aeo e, e y ac paecoe copoee P/l, a/ yoox acao; p ooceo apye, pecae paec epec - Go = 80% - paecoe copoee aca oe Paa ye oee e p paa e paecoo copoe yoox acao: 3500 a/ po 10001100 a/.

Maeaeca opaoa cepeax ax o paecoy copoe yoox acao oox o pooac o oepoy ypae opoaex acaox oax ycpoc:

Pop r (2) lac = op W2 d, (2 ) e op - oe copoe opoaeo aca;

W - copoc ee aa eex aopax, /c.

o cepea ae P/lac paccac ae oea copoe op p pax oex pacxoax aoo a (pax aex W). Opaoa peyao pacea o eoy aex apao ooa oy ypae, yoeopeo ocae acoc op o apy o aoo ae (o ca Peoca aoo a):

a) yooo aca op = 354,8105/Re1,75 (3) ) yooo aca c epxe e op = 263,0104/Re1,50. (4) Paceoe opeeee paecoo copoe yoox acao oox o, coy ypae (2-4) pacea ae oea copoe op, cpaee peyao pacea P/lac c cepea ae oaao, o opeoc pacea P/lac o peoe ypae e peae 10%.

epaa cocooc yoox acao opeeac c cooae eoa oce opoe, o ooo ep ey aeco yepae cocooc aca H, 3/3.

cepeae ae yepae cocooc pee a pcye 4 e pao acoc H o oeoo pacxoa aoo a p pex pax cpoax aex ooc opoe.

a ceye cepeax acoce H o apy o aoo o aa, oyex yoox acao oox o:

- yepaa cocooc opacae c yeee oeoo pacxoa aoo a Gv p ocoo ooc opoe U, o ceecye o a aeoo aoec ooo aa oc coe yoox acao;

- yepaa cocooc opacae c yeee ooc opoe U p ocoo oeo pacxoe aoo a Gv, oao e pacxoa o a a eee H eaeo o cpae c e pacxoa aoo a.

cepeao oyee acoc aeco yepae cocooc yoox acao o pacxoa a coeco c peyaa yaoo cceoa cpyyp ooo acaoo coe oo cea ceye ae ooceo peaoo exaa aoec ooo:

1 acoc yepae cocooc yoox acao H o pacxoa aoo a oaec o acoc, oo aaeo y peypx acao c eo peo ee o a, oopx acoc H o pacxoa aoo a oec pee oca, o ec eaoo o acye pea axea.

0,0, 0,0,0 0,002 0,004 0,006 0,Oe pacxo oyxa GV, 3/c Pcyo 4 - cepeae acoc aeco yepae cocooc yoox acao o apy o aoo o aa: 1 - yooa acaa; 2 yooa acaa c epxe e;

ooc opoe: a - U = 8,6 3/(2/); - U = 18,6 3/(2/); - U = 29,3/(2/) 2 epae oc oee yoox acao oycoeo e oo oepxoc aoece aooo ocoo ooo, o aoee o a a ee aopa. C yeee pacxoa aoo a cpyo-pooooe aoece a ecpyec, o po ooeoy aoe o a acaoo coe.

3 eee ooc opoe p ocoo pacxoe aa po ooeoy aoe oc a ee aopa (o 10%), o o ppoc e co aee, e p yee pacxoa aa.

Ooee ox ax o aeco yepae cocooc poooc a ocoe ocoeoc aoe oc oee co yooo aca. ocoy opee a yepae o a oc e oepxocoe aoece ooo (o aaec y peypx acao c o pae eo eee o a, apep ocoapaex acaax), a pooooe aoece a p apoae co eee aop, aece xapaepoo paepa p oppe ox ax o yepae cocooc yoox acao pa ae aep eex aopo.

H aeca yepaa cocooc H, / B aece apaepa, xapaepyeo poaec pe ee aoo a, pa pep Peoca aoo a. B aece apaepa, xapaepyeo e pacxoa o a, a paa ooc opoe U. oppe ox ax o aeco yepae cocooc pooac o ypae ceyeo a:

H = A Rem Un, (5) e A, m n - ocoe, ae oopx xapaep cceyeoo a aca.

cceoax o yoox acao oye ceye ae ocox ypae (5):

- yooo aca A = 0,0119; m = 0,52; n = 0,06;

- yooo aca c epxe e A = 0,0013; m = 0,83; n = = 0,11.

Paceoe opeeee aeco yepae cocooc yoox acao oox o, coy ypaee (5) oyee ae ocox, cpaee peyao pacea H c cepea ae oaao, o opeoc pacea H o peoeoy ypae e peae 5%.

cepeaoe cceoae eoc accooea yoox acaax poooc c cooae eoa acop oo pacopoo aa aoopaoo xopcoo oopoa, pacopeoo ooe oyxa. o co ec yo coca paa oea ccea a pea ao cec, epepaaae poex aapaax, eax pee pec aao epe cpoco x aocepy.

Paoa coa acaooo co cocaa 1 , ceee acaooo co paoc 0,0035 2.

Peya cceoa poecca acop aoopaoo xopcoo oopoa oo yoox acaax pee a pcye 5.

a ceye oyex cepeax acoce:

a) oeco xopcoo oopoa, ooeoo oo yooo acae, opacae a c yeee ca Peoca (copoc ee aoo a eex aopax), a c yeee ooc opoe acopeo, pe aaec pe poc oeca ooeoo xopcoo oopoa p oe ooc opoe c U = 8,6 3/(2/) o U = 18,6 3/(2/) ooceo eooe yeee oeca ooeoo xopcoo oopoa p aee oe ooc opoe o U = 29,4 3/(2/);

) yooo aca c epxe e acoc oeca ooeoo xopcoo oopoa o ca Peoca p cpoao ae ooc opoe U = 18,6 3/(2/) ee aao xapaep, oao cpax poaecx ycox (Re = const, U = const) yooo acae c epxe e ooaec oe xopcoo oopoa, e yooo acae, o ceecye o oee coo eoc yooo aca c epxe e.

Peaa oepxoc accooea ycox ecoo apoaoo aoec a e oaec ooy epe, ooy xapaepc ecoc poecca accooea cooac oe oe accoepea, pa oecy xopcoo oopoa, ooeoo ey pee ee oea acaooo co yv,HCl, o/(3/).

Apoca ox ax o acop xopcoo oopoa oo, oyex a yoox acaax oox o, pooac c cooae ypae aoc yox copoe accoepeocy, oopoe yco poee cepeo acop xopoo pacopoo aa, poeoc paoeco paoe poecca acop oac ax oepa acopaa acopee ee cey o :

(yv,HCl)-1 = E/ Rem + m/xv,HCl, (6) e E, m - ocoe;

xv,HCl - oe oe accooa o ae, o/(3/).

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