Thus, during the Dunaliella cultivation at the medium with the 8% initial concentration of sodium chloride and the final salt concentrations of 12, 16 and 20% lipid profile has not changed. The results confirm the stability of the lipid composition of the algae cell, short-term changes and their subsequent return to the norm. Therefore, glycerol is the main link of the osmotic response, and the latter is converted to carbohydrates. That is why salt stress does not affect the structure and composition of lipids.
Chromatogram of polar lipids from the lipids extracted from Dunaliella biomass, grown on medium with 12% NaCl initial concentration did not demonstrate any significant changes in phospholipids spectrum.
It was established the same picture of the distribution of phospholipids fractions, which are unchanged under the action of environmental salinity. Phosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidic acid were within the range of 2-3%. We can assume these variations’s are within range of normal variations of phospholipids or are within the methodological error.
In conclusion we can mention that the induction of salt stress in Dunaliella salina CNM-AV-02 significantly increases the concentration of lipids in biomass, but does not change their spectrum.
Lipid fractions and, in particular, phosphatidyl inositol and phosphatidyl choline remain unchanged.
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BoUnDary EStIMatIon oF proDUCtIVIty oF MICroaLGaE CULtIVatED UnDEr opEn aIr In ESFahan SUBUrBS Кorol О.n.1, Zarei-Darki B.2, Gevorgiz r.G. Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, Sevastopol, Ukraine.
http://biotex.ibss.org.ua Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Falavarjan Branch, Esfahan, Iran.
firstname.lastname@example.org & email@example.com The aim of study was to estimate limiting value of microalgae yield cultivation system at various photobiosynthetic efficiencies for Iran’s territory in Esfahan suburbs.
For Iran, microalgae cultivation with the purpose of commercial use in production quantities loses touch with both the scientists and the businessmen in spite of the fact that it is intensively done in the world some decades ago (Spolaore et. al., 2006). The wide diversity of representatives of different algae divisions are inhabited the Iranian water bodies (Zarei-Darki, 2004).
Among many factors influencing algae growth, light supply has the most important role, because light is the basic energy source at photosynthesis. The geographic latitude and climate features have been showed that territory of Iran gets the greatest inflow of solar radiation to the ground surface on the northern hemisphere (Khromov and Petrosyants, 2001, www.esfahanmet.ir). Therefore the Iranian territory can be considered as favorable territory for open cultivation of algae in production quantities.
First of all radiant energy of the sun that plants transforms in process of photosynthesis (PAR) has influences on productivity values of microalgae cultivated under open-air. If the maximal total daily values of falling solar radiation on a horizontal ground surface are determined, values of limiting yield of microalgae can be estimated.
Value of falling energy Eп PAR is calculated with the equation:
Eп = W = 0.5 · E ; [W] = [кJ] max Каразинские естественнонаучные студии Каразінські природознавчі студії Karazin natural science studios Productivity (P) is a total amount of biomass which is formed by growing and propagating microalgae cells per unit area of the illuminated surface (areal productivity) per day or per unit volume of the cell suspension (volumetric productivity) (Vonshak, 2002).
P=B* µ, [P] = [g l-1day-1] or [P] = [g m-2 day-1] where B is current population density (gl -1) and is the specific growth rate of the microalgae in units of reciprocal of day (day -1).
Then productivity is:
P()=(W )/R where takes on a values 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 for the photobiosynthetic efficiency which is respectively equal 5, 10 and 15 %.
The calculated values of limiting yield are values of productivity of «watching bioreactor». The term «watching bioreactor» will be implied as cultivation system which always has the illuminated surface perpendicular to an input of falling radiation. The reactor of this type turns following the Sun so that the falling light input remains perpendicular to an illuminated reactor surface all time. If values of the maximal daily energy of PAR W on a horizontal surface (кJ) are known, calculation Emax will be possible by formula (3) in the data of months. In the elementary case, the reactor surface will be insolated according to the sinusoidal law in the course of day (2):
It is interesting to compare two cultivation systems as watching bioreactor and open pond “horizontal reactor”, which has descending productivity because of decrease of irradiation in the course of day. The term «horizontal reactor» means cultivation system which always has the illuminated surface located the paralleled ground surface.
Horizontal reactor is located parallel to the ground therefore projection of the luminous flux will get to it in the following way:
= t Ehor (t) = E(t) sin( ) = Em sin ( ) 12, where On the basis of above mentioned assumptions about distribution of solar radiation falling to watching and horizontal bioreactors it is possible to calculate the total energy falling per day on a horizontal reactor by the formula (3). Then if total energy of PAR W and caloric content R is known, productivity of cultivation system in the open pond will be calculated by the formula (1).
It is clear that the basic yield can be received in the course of summer half-year when the highest activity of the sun is observed. Then we calculate the highest possible value of a yield per unit area (m2) of an illuminated reactor surface over a period of vernal-autumnal equinox. A curve of the third order (spline) has been drawn through the points equal to days of the vernal (21 March) and autumnal (21 September) equinoxes and a summer solstice (22 June). So, the simplified model of distribution of the daily irradiations will be found over specified period. If we sum theirs, value of solar radiation will be determined for a half-year which is about 5200 МJ m-2day-1 in this case. Then productivity (yield) is found by the formula (1) like calculations above mentioned for this interim.
The presented calculations of limiting yield values of microalgae show that the maximal productivity will make 37.90 g. d. w. per one m2 of illuminated reactor surface at the photobiosynthetic efficiency equal to 5 % and 113.71 g. d. w. per one m2 at photobiosynthetic efficiency equal to 15 %. It is clear that impossible to get these yield values in practice because of other limiting factors as: mineral supply of cells, inhibition of growth by metabolism products and so forth.
It is necessary to note also that any improvement of a reactor design (form and orientation concerning an input direction of solar radiation) can increase productivity nothing more than 21% in comparison with a reactor which has active (illuminated) surface located parallel to ground surface (open pond). Limiting (ideal) value of a yield will make 18.5 kg of a dry biomass per one square meter of an illuminated surface (at the photobiosynthetic efficiency equal to 0.15%) over a summer period (from 21 March to 21 September).
References 1. Khromov S.P. and Petrosyants M.A. 2001. Metrology and climatology. Moscow University Press, Moscow. (in Russian) 2. Spolaore P., Joannis-Cossan C, Duran E. et al. 2006. Commercial applications of microalgae (Review).
J. Biosci Bioeng, 101 (2): 87 - 96.
3. Tooming Kh. and Gulyaev B.I. 1967. Measurement procedure of the practically active radiation. Nauka Каразинские естественнонаучные студии Каразінські природознавчі студії Karazin natural science studios Press, Moscow. (in Russian) 4. Vonshak A. 2002. Outdoor mass production of Spirulina: the basic concept, in: Vonshak A. (Eds), Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): physiology, cell-bilogy and biotechnology. UK, Taylor & Francis. 79100.
5. Zarei-Darki. B. 2004. Algae of water bodies of Iran. Abstract of the thesis for degree of philosophy doctor in biology. Kiev.
6. www.esfahanmet.ir anatoMIC ChanGES In thE EpIDErMIS StrUCtUrE oF thE LEaF apparatUS aS an InDICatIon oF thE InFLUEnCE oF phySIoLoGICaLLy aCtIVE SUBStanCES on thE pLant BoDy karpenko V.p.
Uman National University of Horticulture Special features of the inflow, moving and translocalization of physiologically active substances (herbicides, plant growth regulators and others) influence considerably anatomical and morphological structure of certain cells, tissues and organs. At a later stage this determines main features of the plant body functioning and affects productivity of young crops.
At present it has been proved that xenobiotics are able to move quickly in plants to the zones with the highest meristematic activity. In these zones they directly or indirectly (because of the disbalance of endogeneous phytohormones and of physiological and biochemical processes) influence the stages of cell development. The cells respond to chemical stimulus in the most active way at the embryonal stage. This was proved by the example of applying carboxylic acids, thiocarbonates, dinitroanilin and other herbicide compounds. Mitotic activity of cells at the stage of division can be violated under the application of herbicides. This in its turn causes disbalance of the stages of stretching and differentiation of cells and changes in anatomical and morphological structure of certain embryonal tissues and organs.
The formation of anatomical and morphological structure of plants is considerably affected by exogenous plant growth regulators. Thus, in most cases they enhance mitotic activity in meristem of plants. However, far too little attention has been paid to the study on their influence on anatomical and morphological changes in plants during their combined use with herbicides. At the same time few studies on this issue indicate that the optimal rates of herbicides applied together with plant growth regulators cause the increase of the size of epidermic cells per unit leaf area and the length of stomata. This corresponds to the functioning of leaf apparatus which has optimal surface and photosynthetic productivity. In this respect thorough study of anatomical structure of certain tissues and organs of agricultural crops is of great importance for complete disclosure of xenobiotics mode of action on plant bodies as this enables to optimize the rates of applied preparations and decrease their negative impact on the environment.
From these considerations the influence of herbicides belonging to different chemical classes applied separately and in the mixtures with biologically active substances (plant growth regulators and microbiological preparations) on anatomical plant structure of spring barley was carefully examined. The examination of anatomical structure was carried out according to the procedure described by Z.M. Hrytsayenko, A.O. Hrytsayenko and V.P. Karpenko (2003).
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