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One of method used to determine the Nitrite and Nitrate content of a range of foods was Capillary ion electrophoresis (CIE), which indicates that the method is suitable for determining Nitrite and Nitrate in a variety of foods.

Nitrate and Nitrite levels in water supplies are very important indicators of water quality. Every increasing in Nitrate and Nitrite concentrations are becoming an important problem for public health. Nitrates are of great toxicological concern as they are involved in the origin of Nitrites and nitrosamines and the development of cancers(3).

REFERENCES Bottex, B., J. L. C.M. Dorne, D. Carlander, D. Benford, H. Przyrembel, C. Heppner, J. Kleiner, A. Cockburn.

2008. Risk–benefit health assessment of food – Food fortification and Nitrate in vegetables. Trends in Food Science & Technology. Volume 19. Supplement 1. Pages: S113-S119.

Cemek M., L. Akkaya, Y. O. Birdane, K. Seyrek, S. Bulut, M. Konuk. 2007. Nitrate and Nitrite levels in fruity and natural mineral waters marketed in western Turkey. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. Volume 20. Issues 3-4. Pages 236-240.

Leszczyska T., A. Filipiak-Florkiewicz, E. Cielik, E. Sikora, P. M. Pisulewski. 2009. Effects of some processing methods on Nitrate and Nitrite changes in cruciferous vegetables Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. Volume 22. Issue 4. Pages: 315-321.

Lohmousavi, S. M., 2009. Different methods of Nitrogenous fertilizer applications in order to decrease its environmental poisonous effects on the vegetation and reproductive properties, yield and protein and growth indices of silage corn. 2009 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Donghua University. Shanghai. China. PROGRESS IN Environmental Science and Technology.

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Lyhs U., J. Bjrkroth, E. Hyyti, H. Korkeala, 1998. The spoilage flora of vacuum-packaged, sodium Nitrite or potassium Nitrate treated, cold-smoked rainbow trout stored at 4°C or 8°C. International Journal of Food Microbiology. Volume 45. Issue 2. Pages: 135-142.

Marshall P. A., V. C. Trenerry. 1996. The determination of Nitrite and Nitrate in foods by capillary ion electrophoresis. Food Chemistry. Volume 57. Issue 2. Pages: 339-345.

Merusi C., C. Corradini, A. Cavazza, C. Borromei, P. Salvadeo. 2010, Determination of Nitrates, Nitrites and oxalates in food products by capillary electrophoresis with pH-dependent electroosmotic flow reversal. Food Chemistry. Volume 120. Issue 2. Pages: 615-620.

Sobko T., C. Marcus, M. Govoni, S. Kamiya. 2010. Dietary Nitrate in Japanese traditional foods lowers diastolic blood pressure in healthy volunteers Nitric Oxide. Volume 22. Issue 2. Pages: 136-140.

hErBaGE anaLyZE anD EDaphICaL rEGIMES oF aSpEn-BIrCh SMaLL LoCaL WooDS In ConDItIonS oF SanDy rIVEr tErraСE (StEppE ZonE, UkraInE) Loza I. M. 1, nazarenko n. M. 2, Dnipropetrovsk National University, Dnipropetrovsk National Agrarian University, Kiev Composition and structure of herbage cover are related indissolubly to the ecological factors, which complex was historically folded in different sites of natural zones. Under their influence the unique mosaic of vegetation cover is formed [2]. Study of intrazonal plant complexes is presented by particular interest. Birch-aspen small local woods in arena (1st floodplain terrace of the Samara River) are intrazonal forest ecosystems, and they belong to Steppe zone of Ukraine [7-10]. Birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and aspen (Populus tremula L.) form the tree canopy of these ecosystems which called “koloks”. Special attention is given to forming and transformation of birch-aspen woods as a result of mine subsidence hollows (Western Donbass) [6].

Estimation of ecological factors and their regimes in conditions of forest ecosystems’ growing is the actual problem of current botany. Phytoindicational methods of the regimes of ecological factors are widely widespread determinations, and they have base on ball ecological scales. The main purpose of study is summarizing estimation of ecological factors regimes for the different types of native and anthropogenic birch-aspen woods in north part Каразинские естественнонаучные студии Каразінські природознавчі студії Karazin natural science studios of the Steppe area, Ukraine (Dnepropetrovsk oblast). As basic tasks were describing regimes of humidification, nitrogen, acidity, humus, salt content in the soil complex of these woods [3-5].

Study of natural birch-and-aspen woods has been conducted in Samarsky Bor territory (native pine forest).

Investigations of anthropogenically formed and transformed birch-aspen woods have been done in Pavlograd rayon (Dnepropetrovsk oblast). There is considerable settling of surface as a result of mine. Species of herbage have been analysis undertaken on 1010 test plots. At the same time on these plots the geobotanical description has been considered (quantity of grassy species, bushes, self-seeding, shoots and subgrowth of arboreal species, which height did not exceed the medium-altitude of grass). Species were determined according by “Determinant of vascular plants of Ukraine” [11] with clarifications [12].

According the results of studying some different groups of aspen-birch woods (koloks) have been selected.

1. Native koloks which are presented mainly aspen and birch trees. These koloks have located in the windblown declines with the sandy type of herbage complex, sometimes with the presence of middle-humid and wet type of vegetation. Wood species Pinus sylvestris L., Quercus robur L., Acer campestre L., Tilia cordata Mill.

sometimes have grew in this type of koloks.

2. Anthropogenically formed birch-aspen koloks with generous amount of ruderal species in herbage. They are formed as a result of pine wood destruction in mine-subsidence areas with changed hydrological regime. When ground water reaches < 3 m of the surface, the moisture activates reduction processes that starve the pine roots of oxygen.

3. Anthropogenically transformed birch-aspen koloks have got fragmentary second layer from small trees of aspen and birch. Vegetation consists of sandy, ruderal and meadow species. This type of aspen-birch woods replaces pine on wet sandy soils.

Determination of ecological regimes in aspen-birch has been analyzed for researches a horizontal structure with application method of characteristic sizes exposure of multispecific mosaics and phytoindication methods.

The regimes have been determined by ground humidification (Hd), salt (Tr), acid (Rc), nitric (Nt) regimes and content of humus (Hm). The analysis of herbage cover showed that main ecological factors (climate, water regime and type of soil) are formed the conditional center of koloks: aspen-birch woods with american milletgrass (Milium effusum L.) and aspen woods with wood bluegrass (Poa nemoralis L.). First as a result of anthropogen succession are transformed to aspen woods with american milletgrass of xeromesophilic type. The second steady group is formed by mezofilic aspen woods with Milium effusum L. and Festuca beckeri (Hack.) Trautv., and aspen woods with narrow-leaf meadow grass (Poa pratensis L.).

Separately should be investigating processes of forming and transformation koloks on the areas of mine settling [6]. The soil genesis changes as a result of getting up the subsoil waters to 3 m from surface. In the upper soil profile, litter decomposing processes intensify and organic matter content increases. When the subsoil waters table is < 1,5 m, the soil regime can change from flushing to exudative. Oxidizing processes continue to take place in the upper soil horizons during the dry summer period but, during rainy period or after snowmelt, the soil is flooded by temporary ponds. Birch and aspen in these conditions have formed anthropogenically transforming ecosystems [13]. Many ruderal and meadow species occur in the ground layer herbage of the mining subsidence koloks. Anthropogen line which is formed as a result of subsoil water flooding includes aspen woods with wood small-reed (Calamagrostis epigeios L.), couch grass (Elytrigia repens L.) and with the herbage from ruderal species.

Conducted investigations should demonstrate similarity or difference of native, anthropogenically formed and transformed aspen-birch woods from the regimes of ground humidification, nitrogen, acidity, humus and salt guantity. There are determined the next regimes for native koloks.

1. The regime of soil humidity is hesitating within the limits of woody-bog (from 2 to 4 gradations are after O. L. Belgard [1]). The least indexes of humidification and most varying of these indexes are characterized for large koloks, and most for small koloks. Such character of the regimes obviously related to negative water properties of sandy soils on a background the high standing of subsoil water and structure of koloks cavities.

2. The indexes of the salt regime for the all types of native koloks are hesitated within the limits of rich enough by salts soils (160–200 mg/l [5]).

3. At the estimation of nitric regime two groups of koloks are selected: loose by nitrogen soils and soils with enough nitrogen content.

4. The least indexes of the humus regime are characterizing koloks without temporary ponds.

For anthropogenically formed and transformed koloks the edaphic regimes are characterized by next indexes.

1. The soil-humidity regime ranges from a bog-woody-meadow to a meadow-steppe type: the most prevalent regime is a humid-woody-meadow moistened by capillary backwater with subsoil waters at a depth of 1-2 m.

2. The salt regime of the soils is ranges from a higher level of salts, that is explained the influence of higherКаразинские естественнонаучные студии Каразінські природознавчі студії Karazin natural science studios mineral mine waters, to low salt levels.

3. The acidity of the soils ranges from neutral to distinctly acid. The variation is associated with water logging.

4. The regime of soil nitrogen ranges from sufficient nitrogen to very low in nitrogen. Low nitrogen soils are typical for primary vegetation serial stages. Soils with sufficient nitrogen develop just above the ground-water level where there is intensive organic matter accumulation in the upper topsoil horizon.

5. The content of humus in the soils is characterized as a middle level. But it is needed to note the extraordinarily high varying of humus content in the anthropogenically formed koloks that is explained the unevenness of processes humification-dehumification at the dramatic changes of aerobic and anaerobic processes as a result of water level raising [13].

Thus, aspen-birch small local woods of north Steppe (Ukraine) are characterized by wide amplitude regimes of soil-humidity depending from conditions of ecosystems forming. Koloks ecosystems form the gigrogen line of substitution from law-wet to wet types. Character of soil moistening is depending on the dynamics of ground waters, both natural and artificial (settling of surface is as a result of mine). The main regime of trophogen line forming is regime of soil nitrogen ranges. Also the important factors of koloks ecosystems forming are the acidity regime and content of humus.

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Дідух Я. П. Фітоіндикація екологічних факторів / Я. П. Дідух, П. Г. Плюта. – К.: Наукова думка, 1994. – 280 с.

Зверковский В. Н. Тотально-катастрофические сукцессии лесной растительности долины реки Самара в районе Западного Донбасса // Вопросы степного лесоведения и лесной рекультивации земель. – Днепропетровск: ДГУ, 1997. – С. 65–70.

Лоза І. М. Еколого-біологічна характеристика осиково-березових колків Придніпров’я, їх охорона та раціональне використання: Автореф. дис.... канд. біол. наук: 03.00.16 / Дніпропетровськ, 2000. – 17 с.

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Назаренко Н. М. Фітоіндикація режимів едафічних факторів у лісових екосистемах на осолоділих ґрунтах // Назаренко Н. М., Лоза І. М. Науковий вісник Чернівецького університету. – 2005. – Вип. 257. – С.


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Каразинские естественнонаучные студии Каразінські природознавчі студії Karazin natural science studios SUMMEr phytopLankton aS thE InDICator oF ECoLoGICaL ConDItIon In thE DIFFErEnt SECtIon oF thE ZayanDEhrUD rIVEr (Iran) Zarei-Darki B.

Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Falavarjan Branch, Esfahan, Iran, e-mail: zarei@mail.ru The aim of present study consisted in identification of taxonomic composition of summer phytoplankton in the Zayandehrud River and estimation antropogenic press in the different river section by bioindication method.

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