Source: Federal State Statistics Service Machine tools construction is characterized by unsteady output dynamics and sustention of the crisis phenomena (Table 13). As compared with 1999 the machine tools production decreased in 2006 by 1.9%. For instance, the produc tion of the machine tool equipment in the nowadays Russia per capita is tenfold lower than in the last years of the Soviet era, and the facilities load is by 3 7 times back of the level of the beginning of 1990ies. The characteristics of the machinery tool population being exceptionally unfavorable concerning age, degree of wear, technological level, the share of the new generation of machine tools with high effi ciency, precision and accuracy indices, Russian enterprises cannot produce com Section The Real Sector petitive goods in the environment of presently fast growing costs for raw materials and energy. The share of the numerically programming controlled (NPC) equip ment in the population of the equipment in operation does not exceed 5%. Abroad, for reference, the proportion of NPC equipment is nearly 50%, and among the en terprises producing production tools (press molds, dies, casting molds) reaches 85%. In this country the production of complex machine tools in almost undevel oped. For instance, in 2005 in Russia 261 machine tools with NPC were produced, which is by a factor of ten less than in China and by a factor of hundred – than in Germany.
Table Production Output in Machine tools Construction 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005* 2006* Metalcutting machine tools, thou. 8.9 8.3 6.5 5.7 5.4 4.8 5.Of which the machine tools with numerical programming con 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.trol, thou.
Forge and press machinery (excluding the machines with man 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.6 1.7 1.5 2.ual drive and treadle), thou..
Automatic and semi automatic lines for machine building and 11 5 2 1 2 No dataNo data metal processing, a number of sets Woodworking 10.2 9.7 8.6 8.1 6.7 4.3 4.* Since 2005 “Machine tools production”.
Source: Federal State Statistics Service The structure of the production and the rates of production equipment re newal being what they are the own funds of the machine tool construction enter prises comprise, according to 2005 data, 78% of the amount of the investments, while in developed countries, in contrast, it is loans, whose share is 70 80% of the investments.
Besides, the countries with the developed machine tool construction carry out intensive reciprocal trade of this production. According to the UN data, Russia acts as a net importer in 40 out of 45 positions of the machine and technological equipment, taken into account by the statistics. Being the seventh by the amount of the purchase of German machine tools, Russia is not even among 20 leaders of the exporters of the machine tools and instruments production to Germany, according to the German association VDW.
According to the operational information, the increase in military industrial complex production was equal to 109.8% in 2006. According to the preliminary es timations, the volume of the export supplies of production for military purpose re mained in 2006 almost at the level of 2005.
In 2006 the growth of the investments in military industrial complex by all sources of financing was, according to estimation, 105.6%. The share of own and borrowed funds in the total amount of the investments is estimated, correspond ingly, at the level of 67 and 33%. The main amount of the budget funds – around 70% was directed towards purchase of the new equipment. The steady positive dynamics and anticipating growth of the industrial production output were achieved in the aviation industry (125.2%), in radio and electronics complex (115.3%), in rocket and space industry (113.4%) and in ammunition and special chemicals in RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks dustry (110.7%). The industrial production output increased in all the industries with the exception of shipbuilding (84.2% to 2005). The anticipating growth of the military production accounted for the decrease of the share of civil production from 44.3% in 2005 to 42.0% in 2006 of the total production output of the military indus trial complex.
Civil production in most branches of the military industrial complex developed unsteadily and extended by 4.2% in 2006 as compared with the previous year, in cluding the increase in shipbuilding civil production was equal to 111.4%, in avia tion production – to 108.1%, in rocket and space industry – 106.0%. In 2006 the production of power efficient equipment which can substitute for the import equipment for fuel and energy complex increased, according to the preliminary es timation, by 7.5% against the level of 2005.
Sporadic crisis phenomena of overproduction in motor car construction as well as steady growth of investment and consumer demand for foreign models against the background of the growing economy and population revenues can be referred to as negative factors which influenced the dynamics of transport vehicles and equipment production in 2005 2006. The dynamics and the character of mo tor vehicle construction development was considerably influenced also by the an ticipating import growth as compared with the domestic production. This is con nected with the fact that many kinds of machinery and equipment are not competitive with the imported analogues by the ratio of “price to quality”, as well as the lack of facilities for production of modern kinds of machinery, which considera bly limits the market for motor vehicles produced domestically.
In 2006 1175 thou. cars were produced in Russia, 280 thou. of which were the foreign brands of cars, produced in Russia. The growth of domestic motor car construction being 9.9%, the import of passenger cars in real terms by legal enti ties increased by 30.9%, by individuals – by 88.3%. Domestically produced cars account for 38% of the market, foreign brands of cars, produced in Russia, by 14% and new foreign brands of cars produced abroad 35%.
The main reason for motor vehicles boom in 2006 was the high solvent con sumers’ demand. According to the data of the Ministry for the Industry and Energy, whereas in 2005 54% of the cars purchased in Russia were bought in the segment below USD 10 thou., and 18% in the segment below USD 20 thou., in 2006 the dynamics of the purchase suffered serious changes: 46% of cars were bought in the segment below USD 10 thou. and 23% in the segment below USD 20 thou.
The analysis of the growing import structure allows to notice that the share of the used cars of foreign brands import has decreased.
The import impact is highly differentiated with regard to different sectors of the economy and trade markets. For instance, at the market of the intermediate demand goods import of some kinds of raw materials, components for household appliances, and components for car assembly within the framework of the car as sembly projects has a positive effect on the restructuring processes and the level of business activity. At the market of capital machine building goods the increase of import is one of the key factors for investment projects fulfillment, production Section The Real Sector modernization and technological innovations implementation. At the same time the intensification of the competitiveness with import is observed in such industries as, for instance, machine tool construction, road building equipment construction, agriculture machine building, motor vehicles construction. Low investment activ ity, high extent of the fixed assets depreciation, outdated technologies remained characteristic for these productions. One of the promising development directions for these fields of activities is the active implementation of industrial assembly and the transfer of the foreign companies’ activity in the territory of Russia.
Among the factors, having positive effect on the production dynamics, the in crease in goods production by the licenses of the foreign firms with the use of the imported components can be singled out. Anticipating growth of the production output at the enterprises with the foreign funds participation is changing the condi tions of the competition. In motor vehicles construction, for instance, one of the reasons for the decrease in Russian passenger cars output and demand re orientation towards the foreign producers goods was more flexible price and sales police of the foreign companies’ dealers.
System problem of the transport vehicles machine building in Russia consists in non balance between the structure of production facilities, technological level of the transport machine building production and the demand of the domestic railway transportation for the modern highly efficient rolling stock. A steady economic growth over the last 7 years led to the increase in freight and passenger transporta tion, also by railways, which, in its turn, caused a considerable increase in the de mand for the production of the transport machine building. As a result Russian producers started to increase the load of the existing facilities and involve idle non specialized facilities. Besides, the industry’s enterprises suffer from the shortage of the highly qualified workers and engineers.
It was the decrease in the investments into railway transportation by 6.4% in 2006 in comparison with January September 2005 that had a negative impact on the dynamics of the transport machine building. The biggest customer for the transport machine building is the joint stock company “Russian Railways”, which is the owner of 70% of the freight cars, nearly 100% of the passenger cars fleet and approximately 65% of the locomotive fleet. At the moment the conclusion of short term contracts (within a year) for the supply of transport machine building produc tion is in practice in Russia presently. In high technological branches of transport machine building (traction electrical equipment and passenger rolling stock) this does not allow to plan its activity efficiently, including development of the modern grades of the rolling stock. The absence of the long term contracts conclusion practice is closely connected with price formation system for the production, sup plied to JSC “Russian Railways”. At present there is no adjusted with JSC “Russian Railways” mechanism of price determination and correction in connection with the changes in prices for materials and components.
The characteristic feature of the transport machine building is the high pro portion of the state funds in industry’s enterprises as a consequence of its strategic importance for the national and economic safety. That is why one of the main direc RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks tions of institutional development of the transport machine building is the comple tion of structure reform on the railway transport and allocation of industrial assets for sale from the structure of JSC “Russian Railways” and their sale into the owner ship of private companies. The solution of this problem will allow changing the competitive environment at the market of transport machine building production and securing equal opportunities for all members of the market.
The Dynamics of the Consumers’ Demand Commodities The complex of industries, producing consumers’ goods’ was not able to sus tain steady growth rates for a long time, which is connected to a great extent with the absence of the serious quality changes in technology and structure of produc tion.
With ruble appreciation and shift of the consumers' preferences towards the average price segments by the ratio of price to quality Russian producers cannot compete with import. The exception is the companies which thanks to production modernization and reconstruction, formation of the fundamentally new marketing and logistics system occupies niche positions after 1998 devaluation. The competi tiveness of the domestic foodstuffs producers was supported by active investment policy and existing mechanism for import quotas for some kinds of goods. How ever this created potential was not sufficient for the sustention of the steady pro duction growth rates. The slowdown in the food production as compared with the dynamics of the retailed trade turnover was also observed. In 2005–2006 against the background of the investment support strengthening the increase in foodstuffs productions growth rates is also observed. The growth index in 2006 was equal to 105.4% against 104.3% in 2005 and the minimum over the last 8 years level of 2.9% in 2004.
In production of the non food goods Russian producers, as a rule, did not compensate the decrease in price competitiveness by the production moderniza tion which, in the long run, led to the decrease in output rates and permanent crisis in textile, clothing, leather and footwear industries.
An important tool for light industry modernization acceleration and production extension was the abolition of the customs duties for import technological equip ment. In October 2005 the Government granted the right of duty free import of kinds of equipment to the domestic companies. According to the data of the Minis try of the Industry and Energy this enabled the enterprises to purchase 160.9 thou.
units of modern equipment and to spare RUR 122 mln. In 2006 (January September) RUR 2.1 bln. were invested in textile and sewing industry, which is 122.3% to the level of the previous year, whereas in leather and footwear produc tion – RUR 0.8 bln (230.0%). Positive influence of the modernization processes was maintained by the change in the norms of duty free goods import by individuals and the control reinforcement for customs institutions. As a result, in 2006 for the first time since 2002 the positive dynamics of the textile and clothing industry (107.3%), leather, leather goods and footwear production (116.7%) was observed.
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