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A.. A y CO A HO CXO OECKA XAPAKTEPCTKA HACE EH, HAXO EOC B OHE TEXHOEHH X KATACTPO Ka a x yeax, a nya x, a pe e e cec acee, ncpa a e pe y ae exe x aacp, np c epe np pe e, a np en e a e. B np y c cp aa cepec e ca c cce a ec e aec e cene ec aacp a ap a ncpa a e eppp.

pepy, o acoeo pee e eec e eopaoaa pa acee, ocoeox cee o oece epeceex y- o oe BPCa. e cecx aceex o, ocpaax peyae paaoo yo oa poe eca o -a cpaxa aap 1957 oa a xeco oae Ma epe paae, pye o pe ecepceeco oac. Ta, ceo Meo e a- oc poa ec, epaa xoc oo cco paecex ceo eeoc apex paoax.

ocaoe 50-x oo o epecee acee- Too yaaco paoe eco oac c pe Tea. He oax cee o e- pepa coe cyecoae 50-80-e o pecee epee caeo, Axyoo, Bepea- 56 aceex yo (6950 e.) 49 (3225 e.) o p. yx paoax Cepoco oac (2).

B c c e, o ceo Meo aoap Ec aae 50-x oo a apeo epcpeca accoo opa cao cepo pop eco, Cepoco ypaco ec a coeopa a paa- oace axooc 832 aceex ya, o ox ocec, eo poc ec c- aay 1992 oa x ocaoc 379. a o pe co ocaoe Coea Mcpo PCCP epeexao a ooe eco eca oee 65 1993 oa. Ho oo a epeceeoe pey- c eoe. Te copae acee cecae paaoo aap 1957 oa. Xo a ca- x paoax BPCa pa e, e o ee o o ye opoe epeceee e- cpee eaax oacx paa.

e Meo. Ceye oe, o pa ee c Aopa pa ya e cea y- paoao apex eppop oca aec, o eoope aceee y epece- co, eoocopo xapaep. Copaee c a, aae c epeo Te, a ae a cecoo acee pocxoo oe BPCa oae o BPC (Bocoo-pac paa- ee ooy, o oe e ce epeea o ce) oce aap 1957 oa. o a a ocooe eco eca cpopacye a, a OH o oo coaa c peyaa- o epo ape opoa Oepc, Cec, cceoa, poeeoo cyo po- Tpexop, Hooypac. Ca oco eo oo pacoo oee PAH, e x opoo, ycpoc a xopoo o peyae paaox eo, ex aaey paoy, o aeo oc eco a pae 1949-1956, 1957 1967 oax, pa- ypoe cox aepax coao-ox oaoy ape oepac eppo- yco. o acaec ocpaax o paap 15 paoo 5 opoo c aceee ce ox aap paoo, o x aceee oeco 650 c eoe. x eco oac cepe ypo o cpae c eape ocpaa o paa 6 paoo (143 c. e.) eppop paa.

opo ac (32,4 c. e.); ypaco oa- pcoe ooee ooe eocpec 5 paoo (57,9 c. e.) opo apc ceo opaoc a coao-ooeco (52,5 c.e.); Cepoco oac 5 pao- ooe acee paoao apex o (100,5 c. e.) opoa aec-pac eppop. pee ceo o peo oepe (166,4 c. e.) ao (30,5 c. e.) (1). paox ec, pocy epao, ce ypoC ocpaax eppop ooc peao apaoo a. B c c e, o epecee e 51 aco 10 aceex a apex eppopx aee pooyo, ax 5704 opa. Hapy c epe- ca oaaoc oee ae, e cpee ceee ee apex eppop co- o eco, Cepoco ypaco ooec c peee paecex opa- ac, ypoe epao ec ae e. B o cpa o ac peoa ea eco a- eo o pe oac ypoe yeo epa 2 ' o coca 2,5% o 1995 oy, a o ap- e. Oo p aoo ooe a eo eppop 3,2%, . e. epaoa ec o paae a o ex eco e pepo a eep. Ocoeo cpaae accox epeceex ee aceex yaceee x paoax o cpo epao- o, ocpaax peyae paaox , oopa ocae 15-20% o ooec aap eo. oee oo, o o aeoaoo acee (3). pec apeaoc o pe ae oop Ha apex eppopx epaoa a cyx, ea ae-o cooe cpecax 28% e, a apaoa aa ex paoy a accoo opa . . Cepeoc, cpax 26% e, e cpee o eco, Cep- coa ec ocpaax e, oeoco ypaco oac. Bce o oca- o cococoa oy, o epae o aceee yaax eppop ocoo e- ece opa ac copee a o x, a e ooece yco, cyeceo o- oo ee ea yye x eo ypoe eo , oocpo coao-c- x yco.

xooecy cya peoe. cceoa coco coao cep Hepaoc cep paooxpae oc- paaoo apex eppop ecpaax paoax opeeec pee ceo - o oac, poeeoe ec ao o oeceeoc o oa o- cya oo pO PAH 1994 oy oaec ypee, cao aep- ao, o 48,6% aceex yo e ecx ao-execo ao exc ecx oox ypee, o oo oa., ypee. o ape eppop 1994 eeo oopoo, cocae 40%. aoy o 118,1 o, o a 13% ee, e opoo 23%, epaoe ooee 43%, cpee o pe oac, e, e o opa- aaa 23%. B ao pee aceey (129 oe a 10 000 eoe) (4). o ye e ae ax-o ecx ypoea coco ae o, o o o- pee, cy ooo ocya ex aceex yax ooe e ax-o c 17%, a 1,3% aceex yo ecx ypee. Ta, 175 acee- e opox oe, oeceeoc ocao x yo eco oac, pacooe- eca pepx oeceoo a x a apeo eppop, 55 e o- a 25,4% e, e eo o oac, eeooo ecoo paoa. ceoc ace- y c c opaa eco ac e 64% e a oy oy oy cocae 95,5 ocee, a eyopo c 37%. eoea, o pe a o oac o oaa- a, o 1994-1995 . oe aoe e pae 71,4 (5). a paaoo apex eppopx cyeTa opao, e peo, oope ocpo ceo e, e eo o eco oacyac xopoo ocaeo eco , oo c ocao ocoae yepa, ocya, e e ae cpex oaae- o pap ypoe oeceeoc coaoe coco paooxpae. Hecyao o- o ycya e oo e copac, o oy e paoao apex paoo , epoee ceo, yec. Aaooe oe cpe cax ocpx coax po- oee pyx oacx (6).

e ecoe ocyae oca eo B coao-ooeco ooe paa epoe eco. Opoc acee oaa, o oao ape eppop paa ecoe ocyae ce ee axoc a oe peo oe epeccoc, oo ypoe, eyoeope ooo oo coy o xapaepyc yco aeee. o p oe cpox apocax - ee ( cpae co cpeeoac oae, oco oopx poco e aoo c ae) eo ooecoo coaoo oooc copeeo e. pa.

paeco Mcpea, poe 50- Ha paoao apex eppopx 60 o epeceee ocpaaeo acee, ocoeo peo poc oe ep pcope a o x acea. ocyapco, o e ca ooe oo: ca pooca, oe aec ocpaa , ocao x o c x eppop acee, epy oeo a o co ce co ea aoa. pe ee, apoax paoMece ape coece opa ac a o poeoc cecoo xoca, epoe pex c ece e po- paoc opeecoo ceopa, caoe yo oo a, a oo, o- eopee opeoce yypo-oo yy ee yco o ac ace- eco ocya acee.

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Oeceee coao a paa, po- aa x pyoa eeoc, pe ax a x eppopx, ye peaa- pao aoo poeoc ocoao ocex oeca eopeeca apo- a o pc. oee e ooceoe aceoxocea poea. Oa e oe peac ee, e epcoa aox oeo, e oy ope o ox poe coao-ooec- ao ax oeca a pc poa oo pa cpa ycox epexoa co- oe x oeo. ae e oaac, ao opepoaoy py, e eee ocpx aa oacoc caa c poae oeopeecx paecx poe xoa Poc- e pep epoo oeca.

c ooecoo coaoo pca. B 1994 oy ce ooe aceHa oe oeo pca cpae paoa- e eppop Bocoo-pacoo paoao apee eppop ocae ocoo oo cea coa poea coe cooe coao-ooecoe ooee. C ec ao cya oooo copo, ooa x eppop ac pO PAH poee ep cooooo cpa , ececeo, a ooa ec opoc. Peya cceoa oaa, ce cpa, oa epecpaac, epexo o aceee peoa acopoeo oocc a poe ooe, c pyo copo a peaa aoa. Too 4,9% opoex cx o ocyecc ceae epo- a, o oc epe peya. 41,5% op o oopoe opyae ppoo aa, o aoe-o o poee peecpe coao ae acee, peye o ae paeca acpa a epaoaoo ocyapceoo eae- ecax. B o e pe 28,2% opoex e ca a cex eo ypox. e ax ee pee x coax Coae oecoo coao-oo- poe. 19,2% oac aea, o oaecoo exaa opoe paoao a- y oyeoe aceee oy eoxopex eppop, oeceee x ae- y oeca (7). Ta opao, 61,4% oeo ooec ycooo pa yco- poex, e oya paecx peyao o x caoe coao opepoaoo peaa aoa O coao ae paa, pa oa aeee papaoax aco- oepxc oec paa cece ee pe ayx paecx aa. aap 1957 oy a pooceo oeeBa ao pee ox co- Ma cpoco paoax oxoo ax poe copoaee aoc ca a- pey Tea, e e eee o o cee o Poccco eepa O coao ae oa oopoa ace pee x poe.

paa, oepxc oec paa Ha opoc o oe peaoa oae cece aap 1957 oy a pooce- coao oep oe ac acee o oee Ma cpoco paoa- Bocoo-pacoo paoaoo cea ox oxoo pey Tea. o ao cy e pacpeec cey opao: peece e 1993 oa. Oao c pe e paeco 37,1%, oo 6,6% opoeo e pooo ce ypo coao a- ex ca peaa aoa c oacpeoc y acee, poaeo a pa- ac. oa, o ece ac coao apex eppopx. a oe poe c aca ceco e, oaax o ece o- ce yooo pca oo, ocpaae o aoa, oaaoc o ae. Oa o paa y oo ocoo o epaaaac o, o eoa pacea o o- o ac. p o 43,1% opoex ca, ye ocyaeo epcoaa xoa- o acoe cpeca, eee a coa Ma a exaec epeecea a - ay peaa oyeoo acee, caopo ocec paaoo aap oyc e o aae, ee oe 66,4% ao-o epe a aceee, poaee a pa- apyc oe a o opoc (8). B xoe oao apex eppopx. oo opoca oeaoc cocoe coao Oe ayao caa poea peocpy- apeoc cpe acee ocpaaeo aoeo o. opa oxo ee peoa. Oe coco yoeopeoc opeee a epeo peoe eoo- pacpeec cey opao: coco, coay apeoc cpe acee. pee yoeope 0%, copee e yoeope poea aaac ee o, o epcoa 23,2%, e yoeope 74,7%. aec aox oeo e x cee oya pa- p eep opoex ooao e yoee oeca a pc, c oop a c- ope coe .

Ho e yoeope coe , a a ae opoco acee oecex paea aeee coao oeceeo opaa ceecy, o eo o opye acee ecoepa. Cpe x - cpaa eppop oco opoeaop aap coca 71%. x eyoe- x (oee 70%) ca, o eeoc poopeoc ocec e, o coe pe x oceoo oee Ma pyx epaco ca pe. o pee pae- x oeo oaae eaopoe e ca opee oe coe ypo oyc- a opyay cpey, 80% opoex yepe oo oye 25 pee o (copeea oooc ae eeoc oope oa 5). p pee ooo o o paaox aap a xoae Ma.

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