Luce, 1959; Audley, 1960; Spence, 1960; Restle, 1961; LaBerge, 1962; Atkinson et al., 1965). This line of investigations changed significantly the view that behavior is a process completely determined by the environment. Although effective methods have been developed to predict the results of probabilistic choice, the problem of its essence remained untouched. We still do not have clear ideas about whether all living creatures are capable of probabilistic choice or only some of them. Also, we do not know how an organism “learns” the probabilities with which it “must”make a choice in a given situation. RIMS connects the subject’s probabilistic behavior with its mental domain and allows us to formulate a few new hypotheses. In the framework of this model, prior to the act of choice, the subject’s state is uncertain and can be characterized by the distribution of probabilities over alternative choices. Using a quantum mechanical metaphor we can say that immediately before the act of choice, the subject is in a mixed state, and the act of choice is a “collapse” of the mixed state. As a result, the subject moves into one of the pure states. It is worth emphasizing that the ability of the subject to make a choice between the alternatives with fixed probabilities indicates a rather high level of the development. The specialists in mathematical modeling know well how difficult it is to construct a technical device which would generate a random sequence of 0’s and 1”s with a fixed probability of their appearance.
We may suppose that probabilistic behavior of organisms appears at the same time as their mental domain. Their appearance indicates the moment of an organism’s “liberation” from the “necessity” to respond in one only way to an external influence. To choose alternatives with fixed probabilities, the organism must somehow “download” them into the self. We presume that the “secret” of the Matching Law is that it reflects a procedure of forming a mixed state in the subject, during which the subject processes information received from the environment into probabilistic distribution. Let us imagine that an organism, say a rat, a pigeon, and even a man cannot solve this problem through their inner mental activity. Because of that failure the entire organism becomes involved in a computational process. When an animal is running between the two feed hoppers (in the experiments in which the Matching Law is revealed), it is an external demonstration of this process. As a result of such a “downloading” of the probability the subject became capable of making an instant probabilistic choice. But this ability is not “free” for the subject; to obtain it an organism must spend energy.
The experiments with two keys in which human subjects were used (see Ruddle et al., 1979; Wearden & Burgess, 1982) allow us to hypothesize that generation of a mixed state in humans is also connected with their motor activity.
This activity may also reveal itself during a process of estimation. For example, when the subject is given a task to mark the intensity of a stimulus on a scale, the subject’s pencil oscillates before it makes the final mark. Sometimes it is even difficult to determine which mark is final (see, for example, Poulton & Simmonds, 1985). We may suppose that these oscillations are functionally analogous to rats’ running from one food hopper to another. Let us note that RIMS can explain the process of categorical estimation as well as that of matching (Lefebvre, 1992a).
The most important difference of RIMS from the models existing previously consists in the introduction of a new special variable which corresponds to the subject’s model of the self (Lefebvre, 1965; 1977b). We interpret the value of this variable as the subject’s intention to make a choice. The intentional behavior is given as B=I, where B is the value of the variable which describes the subject’s behavior, and I is the value of the variable corresponding to the image of the self. In this case, variable I can be omitted, and we obtain a behavioristic type model which can be empirically falsified. In the framework of RIMS, the organism of the subject tends to generate a line of behavior such that it reaches and holds equation B=I.
This principle of behavior generation we will call The Law of Self Reflexion.
REFLEXIVE SYSTEM – A CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE Dr. Mamta (India, Ludhiana, Punjab Agricultural University) A reflex is a response to stimulus, which is so well in grained into our bodies that it bypass the brain altogether. When the person has the ability to react quickly referred as fast reflexes. Reflexive system means that the system may abstract itself, so that simulating the system (or an altered version) inside itself is trivial, and accessible to anyone. The system may also prove things about itself. Reflexive system help in rapid recognition, inferences and planning within a large brief network. Uses of reflective strategies to help to overcome computational limitations and deal with uncertainty. Reflexive system would be capable of stimulating highly proficient, subtle and creative aspects of human decision making in real world domains.
Reflexive system helps in rapidly settlement of situation interpretations and plans in the face of new observations and changing goals. Immediate goal of reflexive system can be understood in terms of causal knowledge structures that we call mental models. Reflexive system helps in dynamically determining the scope of active human memory. Reflexive knowledge is a transitory phenomenon.
Reflexive knowledge is as long as the subject is elaborating the new structure or networks. Conceptual knowledge system or declarative knowledge is based on a process of elaboration of perceptual input resulting from perceptual analysis equivalent to a mental comparison model.
Reflexive knowledge can be related to the executive or integrative functions attributed to the prefrontal cortex. Developmental process is recursive, cognitive development could be characterized by a succession of levels of direct and reflexive knowledge. In order to reconstruct a new knowledge system, it is necessary to postulate, in addition to the construction of image schemas, the construction of
schema which provide the knowledge to actions transformations.
Reflexive abstraction is related to reflexive process in a significant manner. General coordination of actions which give rise to mental operations precisely referred as reflexive abstraction.
Reflexive abstractions consists First of becoming conscious of the existence of one of the actions or operations, Second, the action noted has to be reflected in the physical form. Third, it has to be integrated into a new structure which means that a new structure has to be set up. There are three ways that a human being can improve its reflexive action. The first is by learning to anticipate an opponent’s actions. The second is by improving reaction time. Third is by developing speed for responding to stimulus.
9/11 MADE AMERICANS REPORT AN IMPROVED SELF IMAGE.
CAN THIS BE: A REFLEXIVE UNDERSTANDING Christopher A. Weaver (USA, New Mexico State University Physical Science Laboratory) For the people of the United States of America, September 11, 2001 was a catastrophe. For the first time in nearly 60 years they encountered an enemy that was willing to attack them on their own soil. Moreover the attack was carried out in spite of their superpower status and military might. Naturally their perception both of themselves and of the world that they occupied shifted.
In an attempt to describe this shift Peterson and Seligman collected people’s ratings of themselves in twenty favorable personal characteristic. These were as follows: Appreciation of beauty; bravery; creativity, ingenuity; curiosity, interest;
equity, fairness; gratitude; hope, optimism; industry, perseverance; integrity, honesty; judgment; kindness; leadership; love of learning; love of intimacy;
perspective, wisdom; prudence, caution, self control; social intelligence;
spirituality, faith; and teamwork. Three samples of each were taken: One month before 9/11, one month after and two months after. The data were collected off their website via a 1 5 rating scale; 1 means “this is most unlike me” and 5 means “this is most like me”. These were the means of their results.
Measured Data (a”s): Scale 1 5 Measured Data (a”s): Scale 1 Category: 9/11 1 9/11+1 9/11+2 Category: 9/11 1 9/11+1 9/11+Appreciation of beauty 3.75 3.81 3.8 Kindness 3.87 3.99* 4.01* Bravery 3.63 3.7 3.72 Leadership 3.62 3.73* 3.78* Creativity, ingenuity 3.73 3.75 3.87 Love of learning 3.84 3.87 3.Curiosity, interest 3.99 4.03 4.08 Love of intimacy 3.88 4.02* 4.05* Equity, fairness 3.91 3.95 3.98 Perspective, wisdom 3.79 3.81 3.Gratitude 3.83 4.02* 4.01* Prudence, caution 3.48 3.52 3.Hope, optimism 3.56 3.68* 3.8* Self control 3.28 3.3 3.Industry, perseverance 3.6 3.67 3.75* Social intelligence 3.7 3.76 3.85* Integrity, honesty 3.94 3.97 4.03 Spirituality, faith 3.36 3.57* 3.57* Judgment 3.92 3.98 4.03* Teamwork 3.48 3.65* 3.73* *’s indicate t test significance with p<0.1. (Peterson and Seligman p.382).
The curious thing about these data is that people responded as if they generally believed that the events of 9/11 caused them to improve personally! However, if we consider these data in light of a Reflexive Model of a normal subject in which intention matches readiness (Lefebvre 2001), we see some interesting things if we algebraically identify the image of the self. First, we will consider Peterson and Seligman’s data as readiness indicators. We normalize the a – data so that the reflexive description of readiness,, where a is X1 = one of the cited means. We assume by this calculation that a response of “5” corresponds to the positive pole of the choice presented by Peterson and Seligman, and a response of “1” corresponds to the negative pole. The experiment avoided varying its influence on people’s reports of their estimates. Thus, we may assume that the pressure to choose “5”, x1, is constant for each dimension. Mathematically our chosen model is:
xX1 = x1 + x2 – x1xSolving for x2 we see that 1 – X1 x1 1 – Xx2 = = k X1 1 – x1 XWhere k is non negative. The following data show the trends in the x2’s derived from the test mean data.
a – 1 1 – XX1 = X1 = (k = 1) 4 X9.11 1 9.11+1 9.11+2 9.11 1 9.11+1 9.11+Appreciation of beauty 0.69 0.70 0.70 0.45 0.42 0.Bravery 0.66 0.68 0.68 0.52 0.48 0.Creativity, ingenuity 0.68 0.69 0.72 0.47 0.45 0.Curiosity, interest 0.75 0.76 0.77 0.34 0.32 0.Equity, fairness 0.73 0.74 0.75 0.37 0.36 0.Gratitude 0.71 0.76 0.75 0.41 0.32 0.Hope, optimism 0.64 0.67 0.70 0.56 0.49 0.Industry, perseverance 0.65 0.67 0.69 0.54 0.50 0.Integrity, honesty 0.74 0.74 0.76 0.36 0.35 0.Judgment 0.73 0.75 0.76 0.37 0.34 0.Kindness 0.72 0.75 0.75 0.39 0.34 0.Leadership 0.66 0.68 0.70 0.53 0.47 0.Love of learning 0.71 0.72 0.72 0.41 0.39 0.Love of intimacy 0.72 0.76 0.76 0.39 0.32 0.Perspective, wisdom 0.70 0.70 0.72 0.43 0.42 0.Prudence, caution 0.62 0.63 0.64 0.61 0.59 0.Self control 0.57 0.58 0.58 0.75 0.74 0.Social intelligence 0.68 0.69 0.71 0.48 0.45 0.Spirituality, faith 0.59 0.64 0.64 0.69 0.56 0.Teamwork 0.62 0.66 0.68 0.61 0.51 0.As one can see, the rise in readiness to rate one’s self well corresponds to a decrease in expectation of pressure to do so. This indicates a declining view of the world, as the world is expected to press Americans to feel bad about themselves.
This pressure can be correlated to the actual value of the image of the self. From the Algebra of Conscience we have: X1 = 1 + X2 – x1X2. So, assuming that x1 1, xX2 = x1 + x2 – x1xThus, X2 increases monotonically with x2. So a drop in x2 implies a drop in X2.
That is, although Americans reported an increased self image, but this is superficial. Their view of the world’s pressure and the attendant self image has actually decreased as the reflexive model has shown.
References 1. Peterson, C.; Seligman, M.E.P; “Character Strengths Before and After September 11th”. Psychological Science V. 14 No.4 2003. pp. 381 4. Blackwell Publishing.
2. Lefebvre V.A., The Algebra of Conscience Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishing 2001.
Институт рефлексивных процессов и управления 125009, Москва, ул. Тверская 6, стр. 3, оф. Тел./факс: 229 63 e mail: firstname.lastname@example.org В соответствии с рекомендациями III Международного симпозиума «Реф лексивные процессы и управление» в апреле 2003 года в Москве зарегис трирован Институт рефлексивных процессов и управления (автономная некоммерческая организация).
Целью Института (выписка из Устава) является предоставление услуг в области образования, здравоохранения, культуры, науки, права, фи зической культуры и спорта по следующим направлениям:
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* Разработка технологий «пробуждения» и поддержки рефлексии различных типов субъектов, в том числе граждан. Формирование рефлексивной культуры различ ных типов субъектов (индивиды, группы, сообщества, организации и др.).
* Разработка гуманитарных технологий информатизации общества (включая СМИ) на основе рефлексивного подхода.
* Осуществление экспертизы (рефлексивного анализа) ситуаций, конфликтов, до кументов и др.
* Координация работ в области рефлексивных исследований и разработки реф лексивных технологий.
Приглашаем к сотрудничеству Приглашаем к сотрудничеству Приглашаем к сотрудничеству Приглашаем к сотрудничеству Приглашаем к сотрудничеству Генеральный директор Института В.Е.Лепский Фонд содействия становлению и развитию гражданского общества и социального государства «СТРАТЕГИЯ РАЗВИТИЯ» 125009, Москва, ул. Тверская 6, стр.3, оф.Тел./факс: 229 63 14 e mail: email@example.com Основной целью Фонда является разработка, реализация стратегических документов и проектов развития России, инициатив и программ, направленных на содействие становле нию и развитию гражданского общества и социального государства, возрождению духовно нравственных традиций народов России, созданию условий благополучия для всего населе ния страны.
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