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1999 \" , .

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: . . .. c , 1999 1 7 1.1 ..................... 7 1.2 ......................... 9 1.3 ....................... 9 1.4 ............... 11 1.5 .................... 13 1.6 ................ 14 1.7 - .............. 20 1.8 ................. 25 2 27 2.1 ............. 27 2.2 , TEM-......... 30 2.3 ...................... 34 2.4 .................... 35 2.5 ...................... 36 2.6 .................... 36 2.7 ..................... 39 2.8 ...... 41 2.8.1 ............... 42 2.8.2 ................... 43 2.8.3 , ... 43 2.8.4 , .. 44 2.9 ..... 45 2.9.1 ................. 45 2.9.2 ............... 45 2.10 T- ....................... 47 2.11 (). 48 2.11.1 ..................... 48 2.11.2 ......... 48 2.12 TEM................. 50 2.13 ................... 3 3.1 .

E- H-........................... 3.2 ................... 3.2.1 H-...................... 3.2.2 E-...................... 3.3 ....................... 3.3.1 .................... 3.3.2 .................. 3.3.3 ...... 3.4 .................. 3.5 ........ 3.6 ................. 3.7 ........................ 3.8 ..................... 3.8.1 . H10{......... 3.8.2 . H01............. 4 4.1 ................. 4.2 H- ...... 4.3 ()............ 4.3.1 ........ 4.3.2 ............ 4.4 .............. 4.4.1 ...... 4.4.2 () 4.4.3 ........ 4.4.4 () ................. 4.4.5 , .. 4.4.6 ................... 4.4.7 ............. 4.4.8 ............. 4.4.9 ................. 4.4.10 .................... 4.5 ....................... 4.5.1 () ........ 4.5.2 ..... 4.5.3 ................. 4.6 ................. 4.6.1 ................... 4.6.2 , ................ 4.6.3 ................ 4.6.4 ................. 4.6.5 ...... 4.6.6 . ........ 4.6.7 . ...... 4.6.8 ....... 4.6.9 ..... 4.6.10 ........................ 5 5.1 . .... 5.2 ...................... 5.3 ...................... 6 6.1 ............. 6.2 .

........... 6.3 , .. 6.4 , ............................. 6.5 ..................... 6.5.1 ................ 6.5.2 : , \ { "................... 6.5.3 .............. 6.5.4 ......................... 6.5.5 . .... 6.6 ...................... 6.6.1 ............ 6.6.2 ...................... 6.6.3 .................. 6.7 ........... 6.7.1 .... 6.7.2 .......................... 6.7.3 ..... 6.8 ........... 6.8.1 .......... 6.8.2 ................ 7 7.1 ....................... 7.2 7.2.1 .......... 7.2.2 .......... 7.3 , ............................. 7.4 .................... 7.4.1 ......... 7.4.2 ................. 7.4.3 ...................... 1. 1.1. ~ ~ ~ ~ E D H B, , { . :

~ { J { . , , :

~ ~ @B @D ~ ~ ~ rot E = ; rot H = + J:

@t @t :

@ ~ + div J = @t . , :

~ ~ div B = 0 div D = :

~ , J. , ( ):

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ D = "E B = H J = E:

", , . , .

.

, j!t ~ ~ E = E(r) e ~ E(r) { , . , .

j!t e, :

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ rot E = ; j!B rot H = j!D + J .

, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ rot E = ; j! H rot H = j!"E + J:

~ ~ ~ ~ D E, B H (), " 0 (" = "0 ; j"00 = ; j ).

~ J , :

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ J = J + J = E + J:

~ J , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ rot E = ; j! H rot H = j!"E + E + J:

:

~ ~ ~ rot H = j!"kE + J "k = " ; j :

! , , , , :

~ = ; div J :

j! 1.2. , 1960. II . 1963.

: { , { , { . " 2 4 ["] = = [ ] = = :

3 2 2 2 3 [ ] = = :

3 , " , :

10; = 4 10; 7 "0 = 0:884 10; 11 :

36 r = = 120 377 " . .

() : { , { , { , { , { , { . : {, 108 , { , 104 .

{ /, { / (0:4 10; 2 ).

1.3. ,.. , :

~ ~ 1: (B2 ; B1 ) ~ = n ~ ~ B1 B2 { 1 2, ~ { n . ~ : B .

~ ~ 2: (D2 ; D1 ) ~ = n { ,.. , , 1 2. , ~ D .

:

~ ~ 3: ~ (E2 ; E1 ) = n ~.. E .

~ ~ ~ 4: ~ (H2 ; H1 ) = K n ~ K { , ~ { 1 n ~ 2. K . l . , ~ ~ K, J l.

~ ~ l ! 0. J ! 1, J l ~ ~ K = lim J l:

l!, . ~ ~ ~ (H2 ; H1 ) = n ~.. H .

1.4. , Z "E2 HW = + dV 2 , " { , .

:

Z Z I @ "E2 H~ ~ ~ ~ + dV + E JdV = ; (E H) ~ dS n @t 2 V V S V { , ~ { n , S, .

~ ~ ~ S = E H . : .

. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ rot E = ; j! H rot H = j!"E + J:

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ div (E H ) = H rot E ; E rot H ~ ~ H { - . rot E ~ rot H , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ div (E H ) = H (;j! H) ; E (;j!"E + J ) = 2 ~ ~ ~ ~ = j!"jEj ; j! jHj ; E J , " { .

V, S:

! I Z Z 2 ~ ~ jHj "jEj ~ ~ ~ ~ (E H ) ~ = 2j! ; dV + E J dV ndS 2 S V V ~ { .

n , V .

~ ~ J = E. , 2 ! I Z Z 2 ~ ~ 1 1 jHj "jEj ~ ~ ~ (E H ) ~ = jEj dV + j! ; dV:

ndS 2 2 2 S V V . , Z ~ P = jEj dV V , V . Z Z 2 ~ ~ jHj "jEj dV = 2WH dV = 2WE 2 V V WH WE { . , I ~ ~ (E H ) ~ = P + 2j! (WH ; WE ):

ndS ~ ~ ~ Sk = (E H ) . .

1.5. , , : .

, S. S , { Et (, S1 ), Ht (S2).

. : ~ ~ S E1 H1 { ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , E2 H2 { . E = E2 ; E1 H = H2 ; H1 . , S1 ~ ~ Et, S2 { Ht. , E1 E2 ~ ~ S1, H1 H2 { S2. ~ S1 E, S2 { ~ H. V P + 2j! (WH ; WE ) = S Et = 0, Ht =0. , P = 0 WH ; WE = 0:

Z ~ ~ jE2 ; E1 j dV = 0:

V , , V ~ ~ jE2 ; E1 j = 0:

= 0, ~ ~ E2 ; E1 = 0:

WH ; WE = 0:

WE = 0, WH = 0, , ~ ~ H2 ; H1 = 0:

, V.

1.6. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ rot E = ; j! H rot H = j!"E + J ~ ~ E H.

~ , H:

~ ~ H = ; rot E j! ( = const):

~ ~ ~ ;rot rot E = ; !2" E + j! J:

k2 = !2" :

~ E ~ ~ ~ rot rot E = grad div E ; E ~ E { , Ex Ey Ez.

~ , " = const div E =, " ~ ~ ~ E + k2E = grad + j! J:

" ~ j! + div J = ~ = ; div J:

j! ~ E, ~ ~ ~ E + k2E = ; (grad div + k2)J:

j! , ~ , J = 0. ~ ~ E + k2E = 0:

.

~ ~ E, H .

~ , E , ( " = const) 1 ~ ~ ~ E = rot H ; J j!" j!" ~ ~ ~ rot rot H = !2 "H + rot J:

, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ rot rot H = grad div H ; H = ; H (div H = 0) ~ ~ ~ H + k2H = ; rot J:

~ , J 0, , ~ E:

~ ~ H + k2H = 0:

{ . , ~ A , ~ ~ ~ ~ B = rot A H = rot A:

:

~ ~ ~ ~ rot E = ; j! rot A rot (E + j! A) = ~ ~ E + j! A = ; grad ' ' { .

~ ~ E = ; grad ' ; j!A:

~ ~ ~ A H E :

~ ~ ~ rot rot A = ; j!" grad ' + !2" A + J:

~ ~ ~ rot rot A = grad div A ; A ~ ~ ~ ~ A + k2A = ; J + grad div A + j!" grad ':

~ ~ ~ H = rot A A , ~ . , A (), ~ div A + j!" ' = 0:

A ~ ~ ~ A + k2A = ; J:

. , - ~ , A ().

~ ' A:

j ~ ' = div A:

!" ~ E, ~ ~ E = (grad div + k2) A j!" ~ ~ , E, H ~ A.

, ' ' + k2' = ; :

" ~ div A = 0:

~ A ~ ~ ~ A + k2A = ; J + j!" grad ' ' ,.. { .

~ A = j!" ~ ~ { , , ~ A . ' = ; div ~ :

~ , J =0, ~ ~ J ~ + k2 ~ = ; :

j!" ~ J , . , j! ~ ~ ~ D = " E + P , , ~ J ~ ~ ~ rot H = j!" E + j! (P + ) j! ~ P { .

~, ! ~ ~ P J ~ + k2 ~ = ; + :

" j!" , ~ . ~ { .

~ ( ):

~ E = !2 " ~ + grad div ~ ~ H = j!" rot ~ :

~ ~ E H. ~ ~ , ( div D = 0 J =0) ~ ~ D = ; rot A0:

~ ~ ~ ~ H = ; j!A0 ; grad '0 E = ; rot A" ~ A0 '0 ~ ~ A0 + k2A0 = '0 + k2'0 = ~ div A0 + j! " '0 = 0:

~ ~ A0 = j! " ~ 0 '0 = div ~ ~ ~ + k2 ~ 0 = 0 :

~ E = ; j! rot ~ 0 + (grad div + k2) ~ ~ H = j!" rot ~ + (grad div + k2) ~ 0:

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