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Besides the START program, the Promotion Fund announced inception of a new TEMP program. The program is intended to stimulate innovations in industry and simultaneously promote development of relationships between small enterprises and large and medium size businesses. The Fund intends to support small enterprises in irrevocable and grant financing of research and development to be conducted upon purchasing a license from scientific or ganizations, higher education institutions or physical entities. Thus, research and develop ment that holder of license (basically) and licenser need to conduct for license utilization will be payable. The Fund is ready to consider proposals on participation in a program of me dium size and large enterprises provided that they organize work with participation of a small enterprise and ensure production capacity for manufacturing licensed products for the same purpose. In general there are two options to select: either a license is purchased and utilized autonomously or jointly with small and large (medium size) enterprises. In this case, a small enterprise is acting as research and development performer, developer of technology and, maybe, series of trial products, and production supporter.

Great care should be taken when allowing large enterprises to get involved in the pro gram, because the government in the name of the Fund is likely to start financing the costs that should be covered by the enterprise if the latter is interested in purchasing a license for real. There is a high risk of the government performing private businesss functions.

Implementation of the TEMP program is expected to reorient enterprises from im porting equipment towards purchasing research solutions developed by domestic scien tists. The Fund expressed its interest in promoting commercialization of the rights to such intellectual property that was developed with federal budget financing. Therein lies the key problem. The period of several months since the announcement of the program showed that it was facing a big problem of unregulated rights to intellectual property. This is the main reason for having no offers for the tender as of February 1, 2005.

There is another initiative being under consideration establishment of an Invest ment Seed Fund which would operate along with the existing Innovation Seed Fund. The new Fund is primarily intended to finance innovative and infrastructural projects related to industries development strategies.

The idea of establishing a new fund was born at the Ministry of Economic Develop ment and Trade. It represents the old idea of creating a development budget within the federal budget. The fund is expected to be based upon financing with the Stabilization Fund, its budget being at least RUR60 billion, but it would be granted the status of extra Soloviova ., Shubin . First Round Findings of the Start Program. (2003 to 2004) // Innovations 2004. No. 8. P. 21.

Section 3.

The real sector budgetary fund. Such status is needed for borrowing private funds and receiving revenues from investments.

The current model of the new Fund is nothing but conceptual one, since neither management form nor key supervising agencies have been determined yet, nor proce dures of budget funds utilization have been specified. At the same time, the idea of inter connecting infrastructural and innovative projects is considered promising. Creating a fa vorable innovation environment (in clusters and other similar structures) implies simultaneous formation of all types of infrastructure. For example, it is simultaneous de velopment of transport, public utilities and innovative infrastructures that makes special economic zones successful in China.

3.5.11. Considering Mechanisms of Indirect Regulation in Science and Technology In 2004, the Ministry of Education and Science proposed a set of measures, primarily taxation initiatives, aimed at indirect promoting research and development activity. The Strategy contains a list of corresponding initiatives, though too many of them. For exam ple, it is suggested: to simultaneously introduce accelerated and additional depreciation;

to charge research and development costs to product cost to the amount not more than 100% of research and development costs; to differentiate rates of single social tax and VAT for innovation enterprises and introduce tax allowances at the initial stage of their op eration; and to simplify tax collection procedures. Tax preferences are suggested to be concentrated at technological parks, innovation and technological centers, technological clusters. In particular, the single social tax rate is scheduled to be reduced from 26 to 14% at IT technological parks as part of the Law On Special Economic Zones which is under de velopment. Local taxes are expected to be reduced as well. This is one the conditions for SEZ formation.

The proposed measures on tax incentives are not based on careful calculations, since neither comparative nor introduction priorities were determined by type of tax initia tives. It was not specified whether the proposed tax allowances may be applicable to seed investments. In addition, it was not indicated how the proposed VAT allowances agree with the governments plans on further reduction of the VAT rate.

General legislative environment in the research and technological field has great loopholes, which is interfering with introduction of indirect regulation measures. Up to now, no decision has been made on whether a special law on innovation activity is needed (there was a prevailing opinion last year that such law is needed), and how basic definitions and terms related to innovation activity and specific forms of their financing could be legal ized. Tax allowances can not be introduced for this type of activity until the innovations term is clearly defined by the law.

The foreign practice shows that a great care should be taken in applying indirect regulation mechanisms in research and technological field, as well as tax allowances should be introduced step by step. Tax initiatives are in common use in stable economies, since tax incentives offer a variety of advantages over direct budget financing. It keeps the public sector autonomous and ensures its economic responsibility for selection of re search trends and implementation of such research. Furthermore, it requires less bureau cratic paper work at all governmental levels and is not tied to annual budgeting process involving mandatory approvals of allocations and coordination of interests of various de partments. Finally, indirect regulation offers political advantages as represented by less social resistance against general tax allowances as compared to subsidies for selected companies. This is why tax allowances, which are originally introduced on a temporal ba sis, are maintained and extended in the majority of countries.

RUSSIAN ECONOMY in trends and outlooks Over the last 20 years, a great number of macro and micro level scientific research have been performed at various countries to study effects of introducing tax allowances in the field of research and technology. Specialists of the majority of countries where tax al lowances are being in effect agree on a positive impact of such as based on the findings obtained. It has not been proved, however, that tax allowances are always an effective mechanism of borrowing private investments for research and development 46.

The recent research conducted in Great Britain shows that introduction of a new crediting system tax credit in the field of innovation and technologies has not proved effective yet. Therefore, it has been decided neither to expand tax allowances nor intro duce new ones until the impact of the existing tax allowances is carefully analyzed47.

The issue of introduction of tax credit in the research and development field was brought up in Russia as well. The RF Ministry of Economic Development and Trade, which proposed to introduce this type of tax allowances, believes that it could be feasible for re search and development despite the fact that such experience has not revealed much success in this country.

In spite of the fact that introduction of the proposed tax allowances seem to have not been substantiated, the fact the Strategy was updated with a section dedicated to indirect regulatory measures for research organizations rather than innovation enterprises is note worthy. In addition, it should be noted that innovation activity can be promoted not only through direct financing and tax regulation. Introducing a system of standards, including environmental ones, which force the business to perform innovations, is a universally ac cepted mechanism.

* * * Innovation development trends are indicative of two ongoing processes: businesses have been starting to build up their own research data base and developing cooperation with research organizations, while the government has been creating an infrastructure which is not always in demand as was originally expected. Governmental influence on de velopment of innovation activity in industry remains minimum. At the same time, develop ment of various forms and volumes of support for science by the business sector are in dicative of the fact that nonparticipation of the government has a positive impact against its attempts in regulating or even cofinancing various projects. However, new signs of interest in direct stimulation emerged in 2004 in spite of dominance of such form of support as di rect government financing of selected initiatives.

The year 2004 also showed that legal regulation problems related to the research and innovation sector remained unresolved, or any corresponding decisions were delayed, or amendments to the law were found to be ill considered and needed urgent correction.

At present, there is no governmental structure which would represent interests of the re search and innovation sector in general and be able to assume key coordination functions in this field.

At the Threshold of Knowledge Economics (Global Practice in Research and Innovative Development) / Edit. .. Dynkin, .. Dagayev. .: IE, RAS, 2004. P. 168.

Review of Cooperation Between Universities and Businesses in Great Britain. R. Lamberts report. London. December 2003. P. 15.

Section 3.

The real sector 3.6. Sube sectors of the Socio Cultural Sphere 3.6.1. Health Care Main Indicators of the Health Care InstitutionsPerformance The Russian populations morbidity and mortality rates tend to grow (Fig. 70). How ever, in 2004, it was the first time over the last five years the mortality rate per 1,000 re duced (from 16.4 in 2003 to 15.9 in 2004). Besides, infantile mortality rate decreased es sentially over the last five years: from 16.9 in 1999 to 11.6 with per 1,000 births. Life expectancy indicators at birth have stabilized, albeit on an extremely low level. In 2003, this value equaled 65.5 years, for men 59.1 years and for women 72.5 years.

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Life expectancy at birth, as years Morbidity rate per 100 individuals, as cases Mortality rate per 1,000 of the population Infantile (up to 1 year) mortality rate per 1,000 of births Source: according to the Russian Statistics Agency data.

Fig. 70. Indicators of the State of Russias Populations Health So far as fundamental principles of provision of medical assistance are concerned, the Russian health care system has not much changed vis the Soviet times. Nowa vis days it comprises a countrywide medical preventive institutions network, a great number of hospital beds, and a great number of medical doctors. Over the last 15 years volume in dicators of the hospital system were declining (Table 39). The number of beds per 10,of the population in 2003 accounted for 81% vis a vis 1990. The number of medical institu tions has fallen by 21% since 1990, but the number of policlinic institutions did not change that much. By contrast, the number of medical doctors was steadily growing: in 2003 it at 7% exceeded the respective 1990 level and accounted for 48 medical doctors per 10,RUSSIAN ECONOMY in trends and outlooks of the population. By contrast to that, the number of the nurses per 10,000 residents fell approximately by 13% during the 19992003.

Table The Medical Preventive Institutions Network in Russia 1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 The number of policlinic institutions, as Thos. 12,8 12,1 10,7 10,6 10,3 10,The number of hospital beds per 10,000 resi 137,5 126,1 115,9 115,4 113,7 111,dents (as of the end of the year) The number of policlinic institutions (inde pendent and belonged to other institutions), 21,5 21,1 21,3 21,3 21,4 21,as Thos.

Capacity of medical policlinic institutions per 10,000 residents (as of the end of the year), 217,4 235,6 245,0 247,6 250,2 248,as visits per shift The number of doctors per 10,000 residents 45,0 44,5 47,2 47,3 47,9 48,(as of the end of the year), as persons The number of nurses per 10,000 residents 124,5 111,0 108,4 107,8 109,3 108,(as of the end of the year), as persons Sources: Rossiysky Statistichesky Yezhegodnik. M.: Rosstat, 2004; WHO Regional Office for Europe health for all database.

In spite of the above mentioned reductions, the Russian health care vis Euro vis pean countries and even CIS countries still enjoys greater indicators of provision of the population with doctors and hospital beds. But the efficiency of the use of the available re source potential is low. A great sufficiency of beds goes in pair with a longer duration of hospitalization (Fig. 71).

111,90,37,35,27,14,14,20 8,7 9,Russia CIS countries Central and EU (2002) Eastern Europe hospitalization duration, as days medical doctors per 10,000 beds per 10,Sources: Rossisky Statistichesky Yezhegodnik. M.: Rosstat, 2004; WHO Regional Office for Europe health for all database.

Fig. 71. Indicators of Health Care Systems, Section 3.

The real sector Stationary medical assistance prevails over the system of medical services in the country. Meanwhile, according to the assessments of the RF Ministry of Health Care, more than 30% of hospital patients could receive an effective medical assistance on the outpa tient basis. According to insurance company ROSNO MS, 24% of hospital patients as a minimum had diagnoses that did not require a stationary treatment. When checking the validity of the medical bills submitted by hospitals, the insurance company exposed short comings of the organization of medical assistance in 10% of stationary treatment cases.

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