Выигранный университетом Грант Европейской Комиссии TEMPUS (TACIS) "Сеть стажировки Европа – Черное море" (2003 г.) позволил молодым преподавателям и аспирантам пройти стажировку и подготовку на соответствующих академических курсах. Сбор и проработка материалов для диссертационных исследований проводится в университетах Генуи (Италия), Коимбра (Португалия), Рованиеми (Финляндия) и Ницца (Франция). 29 преподавателей прошли научную стажировку и повышение квалификации за границей.
Дальнейшее развитие вуза, очевидно, должно пойти по пути укрепления достигнутой позиции на интенсивно развивающемся рынке образовательных услуг с учетом прогнозов изменения демографической ситуации в стране и сокращения числа абитуриентов, дальнейшего роста потребности в последипломном образовании и переквалификации специалистов, с учетом изменения общей концепции построения образовательных систем в контексте мировых тенденций развития.
Еще раз подчеркивая необходимость стратегического подхода в управлении образовательными системами, следует высветить еще один аспект – позицию руководителя:
- стратегическое планирование поощряет руководителя мыслить перспективно;
- предостерегает от свободных импровизаций, инстинктивных действий, "движения по воле волн";
- повышает чувствительность "к ветрам перемен", новым возможностям и новым опасностям в развитии событий.
Angel o Musai o The budget as tool of development of the university autonomy: indicators systems, management control and company-oriented techniques University of Genoa Genoa, Italy University autonomy The university system has gone in last years through a relevant period of change, leaded on the one hand, from the progressive consolidation of the autonomy1 of each university and, on the other hand, from meaningful modifications in the financing system, in a framework of difficulties in the available resources.
The main sources of financing for the universities remain the transfers from the Government, in the Italian system as well as the European Union one. At this proposal as milestone it must be considered the Law n° 537 of 19932 which established that the yearly transfers from the Government is based on the FFO (fund for the ordinary functioning), aimed at covering all the expenses concerning the ordinary working and the institutional activity of the universities: teacher and technical-administrative staff, ordinary maintenance of the structures, generic scientific research.
The FFO is composed of a basic quota based on the historical expense and of a quota of re-balancing shared by Ministry decree, in accordance with criterions founded on: standard costs of production for every student; dynamics of the staff expenses; evaluations on the administrative management and on the didactic and research activities.
This reform meant that the responsibility of the maintenance and of the development of the structures fallen on the Administration Board and on the managers of each university; therefore they have the task of adopting initiatives aimed at the growth and keeping of the resources: efficiency of processes and of services through self evaluation and quality control, costs savings by eprocurement for goods and services, increase of the “qualitative” students’ contributions linked to the second level teaching offer (masters), flexibility in the employment positions, new relationships University - external institutions with reference both to the didactics and to the research, and finally development of company-oriented budget, of a budgeting systems, as well as a system of indicators related to the management control.
Management responsibility Therefore the autonomy of management based on the budget is stressed; the universities must achieve skill of management and responsibility towards the Autonomy can be considered as the power of an institution to complete administrative actions and to give itself rules inserted in the system of the existing ones. Most important concept of autonomy is the one relating to the normative autonomy, which is the power to produce juridical norms (statutes, regulations) aimed to settle the own organization; from this autonomy come down the other ones: administrative, financial, etc.
So called Ciampi’s Financial Law issued by the Government chaired by the, at that moment, Prime Minister President C.A. Ciampi a period in which the Government had to face up to some difficulties like the economic and monetary recoveries not to be postponed and the coinciding necessity to respect the new economic indicators of the European Union.
Ministry which allocates the resources to the realities more efficient in terms of costs and of specific outcomes.
University is transformed by place entirely appointed to the teaching and the maintenance of the knowledge in an institution having also (even though limitedly) business duties, assuming the role of "entrepreneurial University". By this phase a considerable increase of the managers’ responsibility comes, as well as the exploitation of the decentralization3 and the needs for development of suitable management, accountancy and control systems and tools. This development goes through the transition from financial account to the economic budget.
Some bottlenecks could build up in this phase of transition, bottleneck linked to the development of the simple tasks of allocation and authorization of the financial account towards the task of management planning, with particular reference to the governance process of allocation of the resources, based on the needs of overall equilibrium of the institution, keeping into account the relationships between units and processes from one side and amounts of the resources allocated. This matter needs a further deepening that involves some issues concerning the two different levels “governance” and "management".
Among the several typical requirements of the budget and its outcomes, there is one concerning its articulation by responsibility units, meant as organizational structures of the institution, into which there is a staff group working, coordinated under the responsibility of one or few subjects, using assets and financial resources for the achievement of specific outputs. Therefore we can point out some aspects: the responsibility unit has one or few persons responsible for the unit; the responsibility of which we are discussing is, among the others, an economic responsibility; as far as the use of the resources (human, financial, instrumental ones) concerns, the responsible person must answer to the top management or other upper level according to the organizational frame of the institution.
The university can be featured by a particular organizational frame according which the outputs responsibility sometimes is not checked / assessed / judged;
consequently it is a frequent practice to face some opposition from the management to the following situation to be considered like a sort of equation: for the manager to have some appointment linked to the empowerment for the responsibility of a unit corresponds to the duty to undergo some assessment for the inputs to produce. Consequently it’s important to point out that the economic responsibility cannot exist without the managerial autonomy, but at the same time we must accept that the managerial autonomy cannot exists without the linked economic responsibility. Finally the academic boards must say to the manager: do not accept the economic responsibility if you are not autonomous, but do not pretend to be autonomous without the economic responsibility.
Techniques of accounting The main tool at the disposal of the manager is the forecast account, also called in an improper way, according to the consolidated European Union public accountancy 4 system, "budget". The forecast account just lists the assets and the liabilities concerning a particular period of time and represents, in the form of forecast, the estimations and the outcomes of all the operations that involve the assets and liabilities. This account has mainly a juridical function by the authorization of the flows of incomes and expense: it is just a tool of preliminary authorization of the expenses that the government board grants to the management having the task to give execution to the account.
Split of some powers, from the central organs, with consequent transfer of these powers, to local organs and institutions. In the frame of the different ways of decentralization, it has particular value the functional one; there is this decentralization when some functions and powers are transferred to units that, remaining inserted in the general organization of the institution of reference too, can use a degree of operational, financial and bookkeeping autonomy.
Public accountancy can be considered as the complex of the rules that settles the activity of management of the public authorities, including the financial and bookkeeping organization, the assets administration, the contractual activity, the management of the budget, the system of the controls and the responsibilities of the administrators of the public property.
The forecast account can be realized according to different systems (financial vs. economic, competence vs. cash and so on) but anyway it has to be featured by some principles such as: Integrity, Universality, Unity, Equilibrium, Specialization, Publicity5. The public administrations are used to adopt a financial account, that is an account in which are shown figures that represent only movements of income and of expenditure of money that are able to increase or decrease the assets of the "company".
In consideration of the above mentioned management responsibilities, therefore there is the duty to undertake some actions to manage to the best the budgetary transfer to the universities, by means of the properly called "budget", different from the simple "forecast account".
Budget The budget is an account representing a clearly defined program of actions and activities, referred generally to a yearly timing set, having some specific characteristics like i) totality of the activities and of the management facts of the institution, ii) responsibility of the objectives that are managed from the different cost units and iii) measurability given from the possibility to express in economic quantities the program of actions.
The budget is a total program because it invests the whole organizational and managerial system of the firm and considers all the management aspects; the making of the budget has to be the result of a general examination, so that each organizational unity could define the own programs coherently with the ones of the other unity, in strict coordination.
The responsibility of the budget consists in the necessity to contain to its inside a system of coordinated outcomes, of whose achievement the various unities are responsible in front of the top management; the responsibility will be many more articulated than greater will be the complexity of the organizational structure of the institution. Therefore the budget, to difference of a simple estimation, has to rise from a logical process at the end of which results clearly the contribution required to the single unity in view of the achievement of the general objectives.
The measurability of the budget consists in the possibility to express in economic quantities the program of action. The quantities can be both monetary and non monetary (referred for example to indicators of efficiency, quality, productivity); in the context of the public administration the budget contains mainly qualitative indications or of general character; anyway the character of measurability of the budget remains peculiar, as it permit a better and univocal interpretation of the programs.
The budget has three principal aims:
- planning: to drive the action of the managers according to a clear direction, avoiding "impromptu" behaviours and not coherently finalized;
- comparison: to evaluate the achieved results with regard to the planned ones, so making a rational control of the management; connected to this function is the techniques of management control6;
- coordination: to coordinate the governance by the process of making of the budget.
The process of making of the budget in general terms, can be considered as natural development of general strategic indications from the top, with the technical support of the financial offices. Both in the enterprises and in the public administrations the processes of construction can follow a logic of vertical de To go into the description of these requirements in more depth, see at the "Regulation for administration, finance and bookkeeping of the University of Genoa, www.unige.it/regolamenti/finanza/.
Check of the state of realization of the planned objectives, check of the functionality of the institutional organization and check of the effectiveness and efficiency of the activity carried out. These checks are articulated in at least three phases: i) setting up of the objectives on behalf of the general manager of the institution; ii) survey of the data relating to cost, reached proceeds and results (efficiency); iii) evaluation of the data with regard to the objectives, in order to verify the state of realization of the same objective (effectiveness).
scending type (logical top-down) or to a logic of vertical ascending type (logical bottom-up); anyway in every case the choice of the process is always a decision of the top, which reserves itself however to bringing changes, variations, integrations on the base of the proposals of the various unities.
In the case of the university the problem is more complex keeping into account the autonomy of each single organizational unity.
There are two essential choices, referable to the different institutional consideration of the university respects to a firm.
To an extreme it could be adopted a formulation of "strong unity" according which the core of the decisional process of planning is the Rectorate; the general lines of the complex of activity, the teaching offer, the research lines are formulated to this levels. The process of budget is started by the top; it is after developed at a decentralized level, and finally is evaluated, verified and approved to level of Rectorate.
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