Table 1 shows that the learner can access the content of the DVD in three modes. The first is the basic DVD player only mode, which will present the content within the limits of current DVD authoring. Secondly the user can access the DVD from a computer with more sophisticated interactivity. The final option is to access further content via the internet, which can be either static or dynamic.
All these possibilities can be built into the one disc.
Table 1. Use of DVD for distance learning DVD through a DVD through computer computer with internet access.
DVD player only Additional facilities Additional facilities a. film clips; f. Interactive testing h. Interaction with interviews, on the university staff g. Linking to other spot observations i. Creating a network software with limited of learners programmes either interaction. j. Adding additional interactively or not.
b. Film clips with material from the commentary centre. It can be c. Professional burned onto local analysis of the DVDs if the facility film clips is on the computers.
d. Non-interactive test banks е. Glossary Table 2, details current options for DVD interactivity: ranging thorough basic players to use within a hybrid multimedia application. For example, the user can be watching a video sequence with audio commentary within the DVD window and at a predetermined point in the playback, a diagram or text prompt can appear in a separate window. Equally, there can be access to text from a specified web page given that certain defined conditions are met. This could allow an instructor to prepare questions as a simple HTML text file on a university server, which would present itself automatically to the student at a selected point in the DVD playback.
Although the "DVD player only" option, appears to be limited to the typical interaction as found on typical movie titles, it is possible to programme the DVD at the authoring stages to include interactivity such as password protection, quiz structures, and Boolean logic which can alter the flow of media presented to the user. There is a limitation of DVD players, though, as any user action or quiz score is only held in the DVD players internal volatile memory and is wiped when the title is restarted or the player switched off. Continuity can only exist if on-board memory is provided and there are now a few new generation players which include flash memory (similar to digital cameras) that will store user information from one session to another. Integrated consumer devices which combine the DVD player with access to internet and television channels are currently on the market, and this effectively bypasses the need to use a multimedia computer as the multimedia and programming elements can be delivered from a web site accessed by means of electronics built into the TV.
Table 2. Comparison of DVD interactivity options DVD computer / DVD player access DVD computer access internet access Audio Video tracks Audio Video tracks Audio Video tracks Images Graphics Images Graphics Images Graphics Text Text Text Subtitle options Subtitle options Subtitle options Menu structures Menu structures Menu structures HTML/ multimedia HTML/ multimedia interface interface Video / Audio sync to Video / Audio sync to text text DVD@ccess to web GetNetText option CDROMs All this interactivity is available on CD-ROM with the exception that CDROMs are designed to play back on computers and not on DVD players. The great benefit of DVD is that not only can the disc be played on cheap DVD players (not possible on CD-ROM until recently) but also that the greater storage capacity of the DVD is such that all possible formats may be incorporated on the single disc so that it is usable on any system: DVD players, computers or in a computer with access to the internet. Moreover, the disc version may be upgraded by coupling to the internet and burning revisions onto the disc.
DVD case study: learning about healthcare This case study covers the development of a DVD title for healthcare professionals, general practitioners and diabetes specialist nurses, authored in conjunction with the pharmaceutical company Pfizer UK (Lynn 2005). It was conceived as a means of allowing healthcare professionals access to learning materials at home. The decision was made to use DVD thereby bypassing any need for computing or internet based skills.
Three patient interview scenarios were filmed, each with the option to - Watch and listen to the actual consultation - Watch and listen to a commentary on the consultation - Watch and listen to the consultation with an audio commentary.
Three cameras were used in each interview to record the healthcare professional and the patient separately, with the third recording both participants.
The ability to switch in editing between these views gave the interview a similar structure to that of a film sequence, and could also allow an option for the DVD user to switch between angles as the interview progressed. The interview was then viewed by the healthcare professional, who added a commentary which was dubbed into the original soundtrack, and offered as an alternative track on the DVD.
Feedback from an evaluation period, showed that many users were in favour of the DVD delivery, the simple use of remote control interaction to access menu choices, structured navigation in terms of disabling some navigation options to avoid user confusion, and following a clear simple hierarchy of menu / track access, added to the ease of use of the product. The learning style was observational and influenced by association of audio input to match key visual clues during the interview. Included on the DVD was on-screen information using text and graphics to provide additional support but which was not essential to understanding the main intent of the product. This material could be printed when read into a computer.
Conclusion DVD authoring technology has advanced rapidly allowing for a much greater versatility as a teaching medium. If well designed, a DVD is flexible in use and one disc can contain all the information to allow use as - a self-study option, with or without a computer, - as an interactive medium over the internet to promote active communication, - or in a computer based language laboratory.
The format can be modern, efficient, student-friendly, flexible, interactive, and visually interesting. It can be designed to address several of the different learning styles discovered by Galbraith.
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Ari Koi vumaa Universities, Innovations, and IPRs University of Lapland, Faculty of Law Rovaniemi, Finland Summary. Universities of today are increasingly seen as sources of knowledge and innovations for the surrounding society and they are expected to be more actively involved in R&D cooperation with the business and industry. The state funding for the universities is not increasing in the tact it used to increase and is necessarily not guaranteed at all. Worldwide, the universities are expected to be more and more active in acquiring their own funding from external sources, including contract research done in cooperation with the business and the industry. One factor in this development is legislation. It involves both the legislation regulating the management, tasks and administration of the universities but also the intellectual property rights legislation and the administration of these rights at universities. The university legislation should make it possible for the universities to answer to the new demands set for them and the IPR legislation should be well-balanced in order to promote the innovative activities by guaranteeing just reward for the investment made and the work done but leaving enough space for independent creation. This paper will discuss the role of universities today both from the perspective of national innovation systems and from the perspective of intellectual property rights.
The industrial countries of today are moving towards knowledge-based economy. This means development where the flow of goods is increasingly replaced by the flow of knowledge and information in several fields of economy.
To maintain the competitiveness of their economies in this development, the countries must look for new ways to improve their capacity in rapidly generating and diffusing knowledge. Generally, this implies increasing financial support for research and development (R&D), improving cooperation between the universities and the private sector, and developing the economic and legal framework to better facilitate the creation of innovations, new knowledge and technological development. Among others, the European Union has adopted a strategy to become the most dynamic and competitive economy in the world. In this strategy much expectation is put on R&D and on innovation.
This paper will discuss the role of universities in this development both from the perspective of national innovation systems and from the perspective of intellectual property rights. The examples come mainly from Finland. One reason this is, of course, the background of the author, but another reason is the fact that the Finnish innovation system has received a lot of international interest as it has been ranked high in several international comparisons. Additionally, the Finnish legal system – when it comes to IPRs – is to a large extent similar to that of the other EU member states thanks to the European harmonisation and can in this respect act as an example of the general developments in the EU. It should be also mentioned, as an example, the special interest that Russian Prime Minister, Mr. Mihail Fradkov paid to the Finnish innovation system during his official visit to Finland in March this year.
1 Finnish National Innovation System Finland has been ranked as one the leading countries in innovation and competitiveness in several surveys in recent years (e.g. World Economic Forum, Institute for Management Development, The European Innovation Scoreboard).
According to these surveys, the strengths of the country are strong R&D support and venture capital market, high education and life long learning as well as the intensity of patenting.
The change in Finland from a rural, peripheral and poor country of the 1950’s to a rich and competitive high-tech country of the 2000’s has been extreme. After the 2nd World War Finland industrialised quickly thanks to heavy investment in export-oriented industries but also to the stable barter trade with the Soviet Union. Already in 1980’s it was noticed, however, that the technological base needed strengthening. Knowledge-intensity and technological superiority were declared as the strategic policy objectives of the country. In 1990’s the focus was shifted more towards networking and innovation policy.
The concept of the national innovation system was also introduced. The idea was to emphasize the interplay between knowledge producers and knowledge users.
The national innovation system comprises actors on six levels: 1) general policy making, 2) science and technology innovation policy formulation, financing and coordination, 3) R&D innovation facilitating and modulating, 4) R&D performers, 5) knowledge and technology transfer and 6) goods and service producers.
The most important policy makers are, of course, the Parliament and the Government but also the Science and Technology Policy Council (STPC). The Council is chaired by the Prime Minister. The other members are certain key minister (esp. Minister of Education and Minister of Trade and Industry) and representatives of the research sector, the industry and the labour market organisations. The Council publishes every three years a review defining the main guidelines of the national innovation policy. The 2003 report stressed the importance and the challenges of internationalisation. It also recommended that the most important resources of know-how, i.e. education, researcher careers and the utilisation of research results, were strongly developed.
Other policy definers, on a more detailed level, are the main ministries and the main public financing organisations, i.e. the Academy of Finland, the National Technology Agency (Tekes) and the Finnish National Fund for R&D (Sitra). In addition to them, the innovation facilitating and financing is a task of the Regional Employment and Economic Development Centres (T&E Centres) and certain other state organisations. The establishment of regional T&E centres in 1990’s was an important reform. These centres bring under the same umbrella regional representatives of the ministries mainly active in industrial sector. Their task is to support and advise SMEs, to promote technological development in enterprises, and to assist the companies in matters concerning export, IPR protection and internationa-lisation.
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