All our working life we are concerned with making decisions.
Mechanics of decision-making consists of Even at a very early stage we are involved in them, such as deciding 1) define the problem, whether to approach the boss, whether to do A before B, whether to try 2) examine the facts, to sell a customer the $100 set or the $150 set, whether to take a check 3) consider the alternatives, or insist on cash. At the very top, the chairman of a large company is 4) include the views of others, still making decisions, such as whether to buy another company or to 5) decide the course of action, proceed into a new market, or to clinch a particular deal.
6) evaluate the results.
At home again there is a series of big decision such as, should we For example: it is very important for students of economics fachave another child, or buy a new car or a bigger house There are also ulty to know English much better. What problem can you see here and small decisions: shall we decorate the guest room this week, or shall we how would you consider (decide the problem).
leave it until next year Shall we plant onions again this year when they diet so badly last year, or shall we go for some more potatoes EXERCISES All these decisions have one thing in common: we are never in possession of all facts on which to evaluate them thoroughly – in other 1. What decisions do you regularly make List six of them, and words, to prove the point conclusively. If we were able to do this then describe what method you use to make them. Are any of them irrevocaperhaps the need for making the decision would be of a different qual- ble decisions ity. However, when we are not able to prove the point but must face a 2. What was the biggest decision you have ever made How did decision on a balance of probabilities or estimates or guesses, then we you make it and was it successful are very much dependant on another quality – decisiveness. This is the 3. List three decisions that could be made by using ranking.
capacity to make up our minds and decide to take action, and then take 4. List three decisions where simple ranking would be improved action when we are not in possession of all the fasts. by weighting.
At one end of the spectrum, we have people who will make a de- 5. List three decisions where the use of probabilities would be cision or take action when they have no facts at all or practically no significant.
facts. We would call these people reckless. At the other end of the spec 25 6. Have you ever avoided making decision or felt like avoiding matters affecting the well-being of others, and also by attacks on my one Are there any decisions you would avoid now department’s activities or on my own standards of performance.
7. Are there any circumstances where it is better to stick to a bad When I arrived home, my head was buzzing and I would wake up decision, than to reverse it Give an example. in the middle of the night thinking of new ideas or remembering things I 8. What factors would contribute most to improved decision- had forgotten to do. I had the choice then of lying awake the rest of the making in your company night and remembering whatever it was, or going to sleep again and forgetting the matter, although I had not really forgotten it. At least I did TEXT 2 not decide to hold a meeting about the situation.
2. Creating a List Read the story. Try to understand as much as possible. Pay atI listed all the jobs that I had to do, all the work in my ‘in’ box, tention to the following words.
and all the functions I had to supervise. I kept a diary, and a current file.
on time to care about To my current File I would add any correspondence, assessments, buyhappen complete = finish ing orders, and the like which I wanted to review at a future date; these facilities to be concerned by items were brought into the list as they came up. Having made the first busy rough list, I then sorted it into its order of importance and urgency. At the end of each day, I used to go through the list and cross off what I Answer the questions:
had done and also any items, which were no longer relevant. I would 1. What problems (difficulties) in his work as a manager did the add to the list any new jobs or problems that had arisen, and then I author mention would note which jobs I planned to the following day.
2. What did he do to overcome some of the difficulties So, in the morning, there was my list telling me what I had to do 3. Is there any item in his list that should be considered the most that day. Obviously, unexpected matters arose (in an operational situaimportant Do you agree with the statement, if not why (explain your tion one can almost budget for the unexpected), but by large I worked point of view) through the list each day.
– Think about the importance (usefulness or uselessness) of the 3. Communications list of jobs to do.
One of the standing items on the list, apart from going through 1. Personal organization the diary and current file, was to see all my subordinates. I kept at hand The need for personal organization a list of all subordinates, and made a point of seeing each one even if When I had my first management job, I found it naturally very only to say hello every day.
exciting, very demanding. I would come in on time, or even early. To It could be, of course, that you are often away or that you have digress, a good manager should sometimes come on early and perhaps too many staff people to see. Perhaps in the first case you should constay late. All sorts of things happen outside normal working hours. For sider whether you are away too much to do your job properly; in the example, people who get their work wrong or do not complete it during second case, you may have many people directly under you and you the day will stay behind or come back later to finish it off, (while others should delegate some of the process to subordinates. Communications will use company facilities for private purposes). However, I would is the name of this game: people require regular contact, in particular come in on time or early and work like mad throughout the day, but by from their boss. They will often tell you things or, in talking with them, the end I had never completed all that had to be done, and my head was you may be able to sense a problem that they would be reluctant to full of everything that was happening. In particular, I was concerned by bring to your office.
27 Communications can only exist on a face-to-face basis, and they Someone may ask about what to do if the person on the other end are of prime importance at every level. Many managers who have con- of the conversation is rude – and is also an important person. That persiderable responsibilities in large organizations do not know the names son may be smoking, chewing gum, talking to other people in the room, or faces of their top management and directors. And even greater pro- etc. Often there is nothing that can be done except to endure and be portion never see, or are never seen by, their top management in any unfailingly polite in return. But it is all right to ask the person to repeat operational situation. No amount of personal work can make people what he or she has said (plead a poor connection). Better yet, whenever think you care about them if they never see you. possible, arrange for face to face business meetings, and keep them as brief and to the point as possible.
ADDITIONAL READING Another question that may arise is how to end telephone conversations courteously with people who ramble, leaving the listener in the TEXT dark about the point of the call, who race on without giving the listener Read and translate the text. Consult the words below. Express a chance to speak (especially when the listener knows the caller should your opinion.
speak to someone else), or who repeats the same information, important though it may be, more than once. Hanging up is usually not an option Notes on Business Communication Etiquette in business.
* With ramblers, the best strategy is to interject a direct question:
Today the business world is supposed to be in a state of “manners “What exactly do you have in mind” And the listener may need crisis”. In our increasingly high-tech, impersonal world, the sensitivity to add that he or she has an appointment so hasn't much time.
inherent in good etiquette has become an important counterbalance.
* With racers, the listener, while avoiding outright rudeness, can Also, boundaries in business have extended in all directions. Women only talk over the caller, interrupting with a statement about whom the have entered the business world in great numbers. People from different call needs to be directed, say that the call will be transferred; and then cultures interact. Factors such as these increase the need to avoid comquickly transfer the call. It is a good idea, though, to give the caller the munication that offends or causes misunderstanding. At the same time, name and number he or she needs in case the transfer fails.
baby-boomers now moving into the executive were mostly not trained * With repeaters, the listener needs to assert control. One way is in manners. They feel uncomfortable because of their lack of social to summerize the key points of what the caller has said, say the two will graces.
talk later, and close the call with a polite “Thank you. Goodbye.” Discomfort on both sides is not the only result. Those practicing You might want to add some other telephone tips that are part of poor etiquette lose the competitive edge to those who know what to do good business communication etiquette such as answering the call on and do it with grace – in starting salaries, promotions, attracting and the first or second ring, explaining delays if one must leave the phone to keeping clients, inducing the cooperation of subordinates, etc. Good get information, referring to the client by name (title and last name, business etiquette pays, both in intangible and tangible ways.
correctly pronounced), closing the conversation politely, and hanging There is certainly more you can add on telephone communication up the phone gently.
etiquette. Manners are particularly important when speaking on the phone because facial expression and body language are lost. Besides WORDS TO WATCH that, we spend a lot of time on the phone. A disgruntled or uninterested impersonal – обезличены, voice, poor diction, sentences laced with “you know's”, and nonstaninherent in – присущая dard grammar all present a very negative image. People with heavy counterbalance – противовес accents need to speak even more slowly and carefully than others.
baby-boomer – дети послевоенных лет 29 move into the executive – приходящие на руководящие посты in your list under number 1, 2, 3 (not to forget them). What items are train in manners – обучать хорошим манерам more important for you Why social graces – принятые в обществе правила поведения practicing poor etiquette – плохо владеть правилами этикета TEXT 2 (to train your brain) lose the competitive edge – уступать в сравнении с теми, кто Some but not all of the lines in the following text contain one excooperation of subordinates – отношения с подчиненными tra word that should not be there. Read the text straight through to find pays both in intangible and tangible ways – окупается / компенout what it's about. Underline the unnecessary words and tick (v) the сируется зримо и незримо lines that are correct. The exercise begins with two examples (O).
disgruntled – раздражительный to endure – терпеть How to be a Good Manager unfailingly polite – безукоризненно вежливый plead – ссылаться на 0 v A lot of research has been carried out into what makes a good face-to-face business meeting – очная деловая встреча 0 manager. This research has covered over all types of working ramble – говорить много и не по делу leaving smb in the dark about – оставлять кого-либо в полном 1. environments by including industry, retailing and government.
неведении 2. As the result has been that several characteristics have been to interject – вставить 3. identified as are being typical of the very best managers. It talk over smb – “одолеть / победить” seems transfer the call – переадресовать звонок 4. that good managers are quick to give the praise to employees to assert control – установить контроль who 5. deserve it and also to pass it on when it comes from outside the BUSINESS ETIQUETTE 6. company, from a customer, for example. Also a characteristic of 7. good managers is that they treat every people fairly and do not 1. Do you agree with the author’s statement concerning “manners have crisis” in today’s business world Can you illustrate it with any example 8. favourites. The researchers found that managers who they were 2. Do you think the communication etiquette is really important 9. thought to be discriminating against some people and giving to in business Why Why not 10. others special treatment could seriously reduce the efficiency of 3. In which ways can communication etiquette influence а сагеer 11. the work in force. It was also noticed that good managers of a business person moved 4. Why are manners particularly important when speaking on the 12. around a lot, for getting to know all the staff as well as people phone 13. outside the company, instead of always staying inside the of5. Which telephone tips can you enumerate fice.
14. However, this had to be done carefully because employees, alTHE TASK FOR DISCUSSION though You are a busy person-you work hard to get education, you read 15. they appreciate the manager taking up an interest in their work much, you take part in social activity at the university, take part in sport 16. do not want him or her constantly be looking over their shoulevents, meet your friends, and so on). Think, what items would you put der.
31 SUPPLEMENTARY READING Goals must be realistic. Project schedules, for example, must be set by the people who do the work. People will accept a “bottoms-up” deadline they helped set but they'll be cynical about a schedule imposed TEXT from the top that doesn't map to reality. Unachievable goals undermine Read and translate the following text to be ready to discuss.
At my company, in addition to regular team meetings and oneWhat Makes a Good Manager on-one sessions between managers and employees, we use mass gatherings periodically and e-mail routinely to communicate what we expect Here Are 10 Tips from employees.
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