to talk to you. Plan your day so that everyone knows that there is a time Henry Fayol, the father of the functional approach in 1916 identiwhen you need to work alone and a time when you are happy to see fied 5 managerial functions, namely, planning, organizing, command, other people.
coordination and control. He claimed that these 5 functions were the d) Never handle a piece of paper more than once. Either act on it, common denominators of all managerial jobs, whatever the purpose of pass it on or put it in the bin.
the organization is. Over the years Fayol’s original list of managerial functions has been updated and expanded by management scholars.
Henry Mintzberg critisized the traditional functional approach as unrealistic. He concluded that functions “tell us little about what managers actually do. At best they indicate some vague objectives managers have when they work.” According to Mintzberg’s view the average manager is not the reflective planner and precise “orchestra leader” that the functional approach suggests. Mintzberg characterized the typical manager in the following way:
The manager is overburdened with obligations; yet he cannot easily delegate his tasks, as a result he is driven to overwork and is forced to do many tasks superficially.
17 Part II. Qualities and abilities Others argue that manager can be learned only by actually doing it. All things considered a middle ground is recommended. One learns to manage by systematically integrating theory and practice. Theory helps one TEXT systematically analyze, interpret and internalize the managerial signifiTranslate summarized qualities and abilities, which successful cance of practical experience. Serious management students are advised future manager should possess.
to put their newly acquired theories into practice wherever and whenWhat do you think is the most important question for students ever possible (for example, in organized sports; positions of leadership of management Do you agree Give your arguments. What would in fraternities, sororities, or clubs; and part-time and summer job).
you recommend students to do to achieve more success.
QU. What three preconditions for achieving success as manager can you name Do you agree Which of them do you think is more important Why Give your explanations.
What does it Take to become a Successful Manager 1. It is impossible to describe precisely those who eventually enTEXT joy the financial rewards of climbing to the top of the managerial ladTranslate “The seven Dimensions of motivation to manage.” der. But it is possible to isolate at least three key preconditions for Do you agree that motivation can be measured in any way Or maybe achieving success as a manager. They are ability, motivation to manage you have a different point of view and opportunity. A total absence of one factor can cancel out strength in the other two. For example, high ability and motivation are useless if 3. In the mid 1960s a management researcher named John B.
there is no opportunity.
Miner developed a psychometric instrument to measure objectively an Today’s successful manager needs a whole package of concepindividual’s motivation to manage. Miner’s test, in effect, measures one’s tual, technical and interpersonal abilities. A leading management condesire to be a manager – motivation to manage among business students.
sultant has summarized the qualities and abilities that future managers The seven Dimensions of Motivation to Manage will need as follows: 1. Favorable attitude towards those in positions of authority, such “Any business can be reasonably sure of having effective and as superiors.
well prepared leaders if it focuses on finding and developing people 2. Desire to engage in games or sport competition with peers.
1) who possess eight basic qualities (character, initiative desire to 3. Desire to engage in occupational or work-related competition with peers.
serve people; intellect, awareness and perception, foresight and vision, 4. Desire to assert oneself and take charge.
open – mindedness and flexibility; and persuasiveness);
5. Desire to exercise power and authority over others.
2) who are conceptual strategic thinkers;
6. Desire to behave in a distinctive way, which includes standing 3) who can lead the business in adjusting to social change;
out from the crowd.
4) who can help the business cope with governmental regulation;
7. Sense of responsibility in carrying out the routine duties asso5) who can lead the business in managing its human resources efciated with managerial work.
The higher the individual scores on each of these traits the greater 2. Students of management are left with one overriding question:
is the motivation to manage.
“How do I acquire the necessary abilities” This question has stimuMotivation. By tracking motivation to manage scores for busilated a good deal of debate those interested in management. What is the ness students at two major U.S. universities over a 20-year period, key Theory or practice Some think that future managers need a solid Miner and his colleagues have come to some interesting conclusions.
background in management theory acquired through formal education.
19 First, although, the steady decline of motivation to manage during the The best manager is the manager who manages best, and in gene1960s and early 1970s has stopped, students’ motivation to manage still ral that means achieving the objectives of his function as economically remains very low. Generally speaking, students continue to show a disas possible. We have seen and will see that management is a matter of taste for authority, competitiveness, assertiveness and routine managecompetence end control and consist largely in taking the right actions rial duties. By the way a second conclusion is that female students are rather than in presenting certain styles.
no longer lagging behind their male counterparts.
1. What do you understand under the phrases “mistakes buried QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION under the carpet”. “Skeleton in the cupboard”.
2. Try to answer the following:
1. Drawing on your own experience can you recall any specific – Why are some managers successful examples of effective management and mismanagement – Which manager is the best one 2. In your opinion, what is the single most important aspect of – Is there any piece of advice in the text If there is – what kind the definition of management Why of advice 3. Think of a person or operation that you have seen recently that didn’t achieve a workable balance between effectiveness and efficiency.
Managers are human beings who work through and with other What could have been done to balance the two (If I were I'd.) human beings. If managers in your company are expected to wear flowered ties, for example, by all means fit the company managerial image – TEXT but be yourself. The only way to present a consistent and understandTranslate the text without using a dictionary. able style over the years is to be true to your own personality. Commit your talents to the organization to whatever extent is necessary, but Successful Managers keep your ego and emotions to yourself.
The sales manager, the accountant, and the factory manager all EXERCISES act according to their situations, but they also act according to their 1. Determine your career objectives.
personalities. Many successful managers (or managers in successful 2. Write an up-to-date personal history or curriculum vitae as if situations) attribute their success to their personal style. Maybe there is you were applying for the job you eventually want.
a real correlation, but we all know managers who are successful despite 3. Describe your own management style (as you see it).
their personal styles.
4. List three main strengths in your style. Can these be developed, Why are managers successful It is because they know what they and can more use be made of them in the work in which you are inare doing and why. They know their departmental objectives, the provolved cedures and the facts of the business, and they understand and are close 5. List three main weaknesses. Do they affect the results you obto the people around them. They have kept their thought, processes tain – and if so, is there anything you can do to overcome your probworking so that they can keep on top of their jobs and ahead of the lems or to prevent them from affecting your performance game. Crises and panics have been anticipated so that what the level of 6. Analyze the style of the manager you most admire and that of orders suddenly doubles or the computer breaks down in the middle of the manager you least admire. Does that tell you anything about yourthe payroll, there is a plan for taking the necessary action. The department is tidy and well ordered and there are no mistakes buried under the self Do you dislike in others traits that you have yourself and do you carpet, no skeleton in the cupboard. A manager who has achieved this admire people who are most like you or who would like to be like you will be confident, relaxed, objective and approachable.
21 TEXT 4 Management skills are the talents necessary for effective performance. All managers need a number of specific skills if they are to READING succeed. For example, CEOs must be skillful not only in allocating resources and funds to different units of the company, or in delegating There are different types of management depending on the field responsibilities to their subordinates. CEOs must be skilful at allocating of operation. Read about one of them and do the task following the their time. CEOs are likely to spend 59 % of their time in scheduled text.
meetings, 22 % doing “desk work”. 10 % in unscheduled meetings, 6 % on the telephone, and the remaining 3 % on tours of the company faciliHuman Resource Management ties. These proportions are different for managers at lower levels.
All managers are periodically involved in some human resource Finding a competent manager who understands technology is as functions. In small organizations, most personnel functions are perhard as finding a technologist who can manage. Yet, universities to this formed by the owner or operating managers. Large organizations usuday frown on mixing science and commercial education, and the comally have a personnel department (or a human resource department) mercially oriented scientist is still looked down. Companies often have which is responsible for organizing and coordinating hiring and trainto conduct in-service training program(me)s to deal with the problem, ing, maintaining personnel records, acting as a link between managetraining technical experts in commerce and commercial people in techment, labo(u)r, and government.
Precisely how all the functions related to human resources are Basic management skills, especially in such key areas as marketsplit between operating managers and the personnel department varies ing and finance are extremely important in high-tech ventures. Usually, from organization to organization. For example, the personnel departyoung, brainy, single-minded and often arrogant high-tech entreprement in one company may do all of the hiring below a certain level. In neurs rarely possess such skills. The problem is that high technology another company, all the hiring decisions may be made by operating requires that management (should) be maintained at above-average managers, with the personnel department acting only in an advisory level. The high-tech manager must understand the technology but also capacity.
be capable of getting close to the market and customers.
Important changes have occurred and are still occurring in the composition of the work force. For example, the percentage of white Say if the statements are true or false:
collar jobs and the percentage of females in the work force have both Significant changes have taken place in the structure of the work increased significantly over the past several decades. The increasing force in the USA because role of women in the work force of the USA has had an impact on hu... a) many women and other white-collar workers got employman resource managers in numerous ways: child care, spouse relocation ment.
assistance programs, and pregnancy leave programs have resulted from... b) human resource managers began to hire women for whitethis trend.
The aging of the work force is another factor that is having a sig... c) many competent managers who understand technology now nificant impact on human resource management. For example, in better utilize older employees.
the median age in the United States was 31 years, 20 % of the population was 55 or older, and 11 % of the population was 65 or older. By the year 2010, 25 % of the population will be 55 or older, 12.5 % will be or older, and the median age will be 37. Human resource managers are having to come up with the ways of better utilizing older employees.
23 Part III. To make a decision trum, we have people, who will continue calling for further facts and doing further investigations without reaching a decision at all. Or there TEXT 1 are those people who keep changing their minds. I’m sure that all of us have worked with people who come to a conclusion one day and then The Decision – Making Process rethink the matter the following day and come to a different conclusion.
Who is to say they are wrong But then action, which is the lifeblood of The task. Imagine that you have got much money. You have to business, is not taken perhaps when it should be. In addition, the staff choose: to buy a car or a house. Think a bit. Or maybe not much, but people who have been looking to us for a lead find it very frustrating if some spare money. What would you choose the first (to buy a book, to we keep changing our minds. If they have to adjust to new policies too go to the cinema, to go to the restaurant).
frequently, they will come to conclusion that perhaps we do not know Can you prove, that your decision is right what we are doing.
Now look through the text and think if it is easy to make any deI'm sure you will have all seen by now that decisiveness comes cision. What of decisions are easier to make with confidence, and confidence comes with knowing what we are doHow many groups of people can be determined Describe them.
ing, or at least thinking that we know what we are doing.
Материалы этого сайта размещены для ознакомления, все права принадлежат их авторам.
Если Вы не согласны с тем, что Ваш материал размещён на этом сайте, пожалуйста, напишите нам, мы в течении 1-2 рабочих дней удалим его.