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forming the controlling function determining positions and their associated duties and then staffing those 9. Which skills do managers need to perform effectively *Why positions. _ is each important 6. In order to apportion human resources properly, managers com 10. Give examples of the qualities of an effective manager. pare company objectives with the available resources. _ *Classify these as either interpersonal, organizational, or technical 7. Classified advertisements in newspapers and professional jourskills. nals provide a list of jobs that are available, a brief description of each job, and a telephone number or an address. _ II. Discuss the following questions with a partner. In giving 8. One of the roles of a supervisor is to direct workers in order to your answers, try to use the new terms. maximize their talents and increase their efficiency. _ 1. During which management phase are overall organizational II. Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate terms from the objectives established list.

2. What personal qualities do you think good managers should have direction adequately manager motivate supervision 3. Which of the four management functions do you think is the regardless revised attain guided interpersonal most important Why Since 1950, American manufacturing industries have the 4. Why are interpersonal skills essential for effective manage of their operating philosophies at the level of manufacturing ment unit.

5. Why is staffing considered an ongoing managerial duty As the degree of education and technical sophistication of the labour force has increased, top management teams have the estabQUIZ I lished patterns of to increase communication from a one-way control mode to a two-way dialogue mode. In order to _ I. Substitute appropriate terms from the italicised words or production targets, plant managers and supervisors realized the need to phrases in the following sentences.

the workers under their direction.

established functions phases team positions move on allocate attained guide overall TEXT ANALYSIS 1. Often a group of managers, rather than an individual, works on Look at the reading to answer these questions.

a particular project. _ 1. What does each of the following refer to 9 LINES WORDS REFERENTS ADDITIONAL READING 3 their 11 these goals TEXT 19 this Read the text and answer some questions after the text.

25 they 2. In line 15, a connective word is used to show a contrast. Find Management the connective word and copy it below. Then write down the two concepts that are being contrasted.

There are probably as many definitions of management as there _ _ / _ are books on the subject. Many of them (definitions) are relatively con(connective) (concepts being contrasted) cise and simplistic. For example, one early writer defined management 3. What connective words or phrases, if any, are used to introas knowing exactly what you want (people) to do and then seeing that duce the four basic management functions If no connective is used, they do it in the best and cheapest way. However, management is a indicate this with O.

complex process much more complex than that definition leads us to believe.

CONNECTIVE WORDS OR PHRASES Management can be defined as follows:

MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS Management is a set of activities, including planning and decision making, organizing, leading and controlling, directed at an organi- a. _ --------> zation's human, financial, physical and information resources, with the b. The second management function --------> organizing aim of achieving organizational goals in an efficient and effective manc._ --------> ner.

d._ --------> By efficient we mean using resources wisely and without unnecessary waste. By effective, we mean doing the right things.

4. Write definitions for the management functions by matching a With this basic understanding of management, defining the term function on the left with a definition on the right. Use this definition form:

manager becomes relatively simple.

term being defined --------> verb to be ---------> definition A manager is someone whose primary activities are a part of the management process. In particular, a manager is someone who plans FUNCTIONS DEFINITIONS and makes decisions, organizes, leads and controls human, financial, physical and information resources.

a. Planning The day-to-day direction and supervision of workers There are many kinds of managers. One point of differentiation is b. Organizing The evaluation of how well company objectives among organizations, as those earlier examples imply. Another occurs are being met within an organization.

c. Directing The determination of overall company objectives and Managers can be differentiated according to their level in the orhow they can best be achieved ganization. Levels of managers can be differentiated into three basic d. Controlling The process of putting the plan into action categories top, middle and first-line.

Managers can be categorized by area. Kind of managers by area a. Planning is include marketing, financial, operations, human resource, administrab.

tive and specialized managers.


11 Most managers have 10 basic roles to play: 3 interpersonal roles In order to allow more time for external document review, the (figurehead, leader, and liaison), 3 informational roles (monitor, dis- following changes have been suggested.

seminator and spokesperson) and 4 decisional roles (entrepreneur, dis- turbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator). PHASE ITEM PRESENT DEADLINE DATE PROPOSED DATE Management skills may be acquired through education (formal I Initial department September 1 August coursework and continuing education) or experience (training programs draft and previous jobs). Increasingly, successful managers are drawing on II Revisions by Senior October 1 September both experience and education as a means of acquiring and developing Planning Staff the skills they need.

III Presentation of final November 1 October Management processes are applicable in a wide variety of setdraft to Board of Directors tings, including profit-seeking organizations (large and small businesses for review and international businesses) and not-for-profit organizations (government organizations, educational organizations, healthcare facilities, and These proposed changes will no doubt impact your present work non-traditional organizations).

procedures, staffing levels, and planning methods. Your comments and suggestions are now being solicited and must be made in writing to this QUESTIONS office no later than July 10.

1. How many definitions of management can you give Which 2. Prepare a response to Mr Edwards specifically in the area of one is given in the text deadline dates and their effect on your staff (e.g., work procedures).

2. What do efficient and effective mean _ 3. Can you enumerate managerial roles(given in the text above) 4. How can managerial skills be acquired TEXT In the following text youll come across 4 more functions. Do WRITING you think they are important Which of 8 functions do you think are the most important, the least important 1. Read the following memo as if you were a member of the senior planning staff.

What do Managers Do ------------------------------------------------------------------- Although nearly all aspects of modern life are touched at least inMEMORANDUM directly by the work of managers, many people do not really understand To: All Senior Planning Staff what the management process is. Management is much more, for examFrom: Thomas Edwards, Vice President ple, than the familiar activity of telling employee what to do. ManageOffice of Corporate Planning ment is a complex and dynamic mixture of systematic techniques and Date: June 17,common sense.

Subject: Proposed changes to annual corporate plan be completed As with any complex process, the key to learning about manageby the first of December each year.

ment lies in dividing it into really understood subprocesses. Currently there are two different approaches to dividing the management process for study and discussion. One approach dating back to the early part of 13 this century, is to separate managerial functions. A second, more recent Controlling. When managers compare desired results with actual approach focuses on managerial roles. Managerial functions are general results and take the necessary corrective action, they are keeping things on track through the control function. Deviations from past plans should administrative duties carried out in virtually all productive organizations.

be considered when formulating new plans.

Managerial roles are specific categories of managerial behavior. Functions tend to be more general. Now well discuss 8 of the functions.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES 1. planning 2. decision making 1. Interview a supervisor or manager (if possible) to find out how 3. organizing much time is spent performing each of the basic management functions.

4. staffing Compare the results of the interview with your classmates.

5. communicating 2. Ask a worker and a supervisor what kinds of skills they think 6. motivating an effective manager should have. Classify the responses as interper7. leading sonal, organizational, or technical skills. Compare the answers of the 8. controlling worker and the supervisor.

Planning. Commonly referred to as the primary management function planning is the formulating of future courses of action. Plans TEXT and the objectives on which they are based give purpose and direction to the organization, its subunits, and contributing individuals. Now youll read about the other approach to dividing the manDecision making. Managers choose among alternative courses of agement process. Which in your opinion is more suitable, relevant action when they make decisions. Making the correct decision in to- According to Henry Mintzberg, a researcher in 1970s there is days complex world is a major management challenge. another way of studying what managers should do a more fruitful way Organizing. Structural consideration such as the chain of com- of studying what managers do is to focus on the key roles they play. He mand, division of labor, and assignment of responsibility are part of the isolated ten roles that he believes are common to managers at all levels.

organizing function. Careful organizing helps ensure the efficient use of Read the diary of one of the managers. Do it attentively. Then try human resources. to reconstruct (or to picture )all the facts about manager.

Staffing. Organizations are only as good as the people in them. Ten Facts of Managerial Life (from direct observation and diaStaffing consists of recruiting, training and developing people who can ries):

contribute to the organized effort. 1. Managers work long hours. The number of hours worked tends Communicating. Todays managers are responsible for communi- to increase as one climbs the managerial ladder.

cation to their employees, to technical knowledge, instructions, rules and 2. Managers are busy. The typical managers day is made up of information, required to get the job done. Recording that communication hundreds of brief incidents or episodes. Activity rates tend to decrease is a two-way process, managers should be responsible to feedback and as rank increases.

upward communication. 3. A managers work is fragmented, episodes are brief. Given Motivating. An important aspect of management today is motivat- managers high activity level, they have little time to devote to any sining by satisfying needs and meeting expectations with meaningful work gle activity. Interruptions and discontinuity are the rule.

and valued rewards. 4. The managers job is varied. Managers engage in a variety of Leading. Managers become inspiring leaders by serving as role activities (paper work), phone calls, scheduled and unscheduled meetmodels and adapting their management style to the demands of the ings, and inspection tours/visits), interact with a variety of people, and situation. deal with a variety of content areas.

15 5. Managers spend most of their time pursuing activities within MINI CASE STUDY their own organisations. As managerial rank increases, managers spend Below you can see several common problems for anyone who proportionately more time outside their work areas and organisations.

works in an office.

6. The managers work is primarily oral. Managers at all levels The Problems spend the majority of their time communicating verbally (by personal 1. My phone never stops ringing.

contact or telephone).

2. People are always coming in and out of my office.

7. Managers use a lot of contacts. Consistent with their high level 3. I spend too much time in meetings.

of verbal communication, managers continually exchange information 4. I can manage my time perfectly well. Its technical breakdowns with superiors, peers, subordinates, and outsiders on an ongoing basis.

and constant problems with computers which make it difficult for me to 8. Managers are not reflective planners. The typical manager is manage my time.

too busy to find uninterrupted blocks of time for reflective planning.

Choose from the list of solutions below the one which you think 9. Information is the basic ingredient of the managers work.

is best for each problem and tell your partner about it. Add your own Managers spend most of their time obtaining, interpreting and giving comments.


The Solutions 10. Managers dont know how they spend their time. Managers consistently over-estimate the time they spend on production, reading a) Prioritise. Delegate. Block time for important tasks. Keep and writing, phone calls, thinking, and calculating and consistently un- things in proportion. If the problem persists, discuss it with a superior.

derestimate the time spent on discussions. b) Dont be afraid to tell people you are too busy right now.

Stand up when someone comes in and dont sit down again if you dont ADDITIONAL INFORMATION want them to stay.

c) Dont always agree to see people straight away when they ask Look through the following text and be ready to fulfill the task.

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