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oaao, o ce poeop acca oaao, a ae pye oaae paoa eo coee (apea, ca, ea-ea, op, epo, oc yepoa (II), p ap, yo, epaopoooa coa), a oeoe eee ape copoa ax, acoc, ceeee (opeeeoe eoo opopa), o pee cooecyee x acaoy aoy ey. epecex ao o coco oppepye c cocyocya ece; ocoe oc, aeo py eeca, ea e exa: opaoae eeooa (p ap, apa-aopooeo) apoceooa (CO), poae xaex epeo (a), yeee xaeoo epa (op, epo) . .

oepee apaooeco ppo ec yaax coee ee c c copo eo cya ae o oooc ocae oe a x aaoca aeaoa, a ae oee ae copoa. peoaa, o pooyeo e oep y oooepx ox ae opeeec ocec exao, a a aa p oxae poec oce ce ape copoa ax e 50% o cxooo.

Cyecy ae o ao ee ecaa a eoo ypoe, .e. ycox, a yo cax eo cocyocyaee ece. Oao pao ao cee e opoepa ae apaooeco oc a ocooo aopa exae paoaoo ec ecaa ycox opaa. Bo-epx, a e ecaa i vitro poec aeo ee cee p oepax, oope e cooca c oa pecx cceax ae p yco oeoo oaa x peapaa. Ha cao ee ocyee oo coee o eca ee poeocoe pyco, a ae opa, pocxo a opeeeoe pe, a cyae ecaa oo yeaec -a cocyocyaeo ea eo ooe ec oaao oe e ocecy ppoy, ec yec ae o aeo coee oe ecoc xa, oycoae cee aeoo ape copoa.

Ta opao, exa aoo ec ooo ca poeopo, a ce oaa, opae o o cee ca c copo eo.

B ooe aooo ae poope. B oce o coc oy, o oee ae copoa cpee, copooaeec yeee eo aeoo ape (epeoo c oo opopa), cae (o e ycpae) a e.

opopaece cceoa, oao, e a ocoa aeopecoo opa c exaa aoo ec oox coee c copo eo, acoa acoc o eo oaao. Cyecya exa opopaecoo aaa opaae cyap copo aac a e ooe ep apee copoa eocpeceo eax, a e oee oy cee ooceo pooceooopa ee, oopa ee peaee aee oa paoyceoc.

Peoeyea epaypa 1. poeo C.. Paooo eoea ox. M.: Bca oa, 1988.

2. Paa. o, e, pc. M.: Mp, 1990.

3. o A.M. o epo. M.: eopycca coeca oe, 1990.

4. apao B.A. oypa paooo. e: Hayoa ya, 1988.

5. Aepoa A.B., yoc B.., Pyca .M. o yo a o paa. M., 1992.

6. y A.M. poe copeeo paooo. M., 1987.

7. ycoa A.., acooo.. Ocpa yea oe eoea. M., 1970.

8. y A.M. Cpyypo-eaoeca eop paooo. M.: Haya, 1986.

e EBA OEH EOBEA o yeo oe eoea oa cae paoopae poe opaaeo ec opyx ye a opa. Mooopae x poe ac pee ceo o ceyx aopo: oye oee ecoe, eee o opoppoax paoax eec; peeo aop oopaoe, oopoe, poopoaoe, xpoecoe oyee; pocpace aop paoepoe epaoepoe oyee; oyae oe oaa oyeoo yaca.

o 6 ayca 1945 ., oa epe o cooao aooe opye, o cyecy, e o ax cee o eco ape ocpo yeo oe eoea, ao paopee o oece opye paa. B aee opa caa ocya pyx coo: peya pax aap (opoo ocao oee 40 ax ae) peee oeo oye eex ex, acoc, p epa eoo.

Opac a aepa peye a, a peco paccope apa yeoo opae opaa ocmpy yey oe, oay peyae oopamoo momaoo eeo omocumeo paoepoo oyeu, a ae opoo ocaoc a pyx opax yeoo opae.

OCTPA EBA OEH P OTHOCTEHO PABHOMEPHOM OEH Xapaepa epa ocpo yeo oe ooopaoc ecoo ee, e oo ycope coeopay cyeaoc poe opae oex cce opaa.

A.. ycoa ..acooo peaa paa p epoa ee ocpo yeo oe: nepuo opupoau, nepuo occmaoeu nepuo ucxoo u nocecmu.

B acoe ae ye paccope ep epo, a opoca occaoe oae ocec oye oce e oceye a.

epuo opupoau ocpo yeo oe co oepe oo eo pae a epe a:

1. aa epo ocpo pea.

2. aa ayeoc ecoo aooy (cpa, aea, aa).

3. aa paex ecx poe (aa paapa oe).

4. aa paeo occaoe.

poe oo, ocpy yey oe paa o cee ec opae, opeeeo ooeo oo ye.

yea oe eoea oae p oye oax 1 10 p oee. p ex oax oea pea co copo oex cce pao cee paeoc.

B aaoe o 1 10 p paa p cee ec ocpo yeo oe:

Ocpa yea oe I (eo) cmeneu (12 p).

Ocpa yea oe II (cpee) cmeneu (24 p).

Ocpa yea oe III (m eo) cmeneu (46 p).

p oax e 6 p oae ocpa yea oe IV (pae m eo) cmeneu.

Bepooc pa ocpo yeo oe o o cee ec p ao oe opeeec yao paoyceoc opaa.

p oax 610 p paaec epexoa opa oe, poeaa a pe cee, o c opaee ea;

ceaoe eee oe oece ae. p oax 1020 p oae a opa eoo opae, aaaac cepe cxoo epe 816 cy. p oax 2080 p paaec oceecoe opaee (cocyca opa opae). Cep acyae a 47-e cy p ooo eao coae. Haoe, p oax e 80 p oae epepaa opa opae c oaco cyopoa, aepaac cep a 13- cy.

peco cceo, cee opae oopo opeee ec cxo ocpo yeo oe p oax 110 p, ec, a ae, ccea poeope epy oepe oc o. Paaec a opa ocpo yeo oe, p oopo aoee eo poc ocoe aoeeece aooepoc ecoo oppoa ee oex a epoo.

AA EPBHO OE PEA epa pea opaa eoea oae ooo copo ( epe y-ac) poec o cex cyax oye p oax, peax 2 p. oc ooa, poa, ycaec oce pea oc, ceae ae. oa oyaec cyxoc ope o py.

ocpaae ca yco ec ooe, ooy o, oy caoc, cooc. pooeoc a 13 .

Haoee aocecoe, a eoopx cyax poocecoe, aee ee pe oe oo po, a ae pooeoc ceecoo cpoa. , aoee eo ocpaax p pe aoo o, epa pea oaa epe 0,53 pooaac eee ecox (34) e.

Heaop pooceco ooe paa, peopee oe eoe eee oe (a ceoaeo, ceecy o cyapo oe ye ~ 10 p), c: pae oooooo coco c aee apepaoo ae, paopeea oep coa, cyepa eepaypa, ooc.

Ha yacax o, oepxc oye oax 610 p, oae pexoa epe e aapa.

poc pa epo-peeopx apye:

acep cyxox peeco, ycee epopaa, aoc ox aooopx pea. eec epoeaopaa, pe, a oaa cepeae cceoa ..popea, ee e peeopy ppoy, a a oa eaco o oo, oyac ooa oeoc.

B epepeco po epe cy oce oye aaec epo eoo co co eo, a ae acoa oocea oe.

B oco oe eoea p oo eaooeco aae yaa yaec oapy oee eee ee ee, aoee aee a 23- cy: yeee oeo ca eoapoo, cee oecoo eca ceoee oox op eo. Oao p ceao ooeco cceoa ocoo oa eoea, a e, a y ox, pee eeepae ee oy oapye ye epe ac oce oye. oxecx ee po o oo oe p oax 34 p oee po ypo caxapa pya cee coepa xopo, a ae aoayp (epoo, cece oeoo pacaa ea papyaxc eo).

ece poe epo a ocpo yeo oe c e oo cece poo opee paoycex cce (oe, aepa eooo ee, yeee ca ceoee oox op poeopx eo, a ooo, aoayp), o eo ceecy o pexox, o x pax apyex epo-peyopx yopax aoooe (ceece, cocyce paccpoca, ooopyee ..). Mexa ocex poe oa ece, ecoeo, oao, o ooe aao a opae coae ec pae po, o opoceey. O o ceecye pae epo pea y pax o ox. Haoee ee poe y coa. po, poeopa ccea oopx oee paopecea, e y ex pyo, aco oa o yo ye p oax 1215 p. Bee eee paea epa pea a oyee y e pc, ooo, c c ocyce y x pooo epa.

AA AEOC HECOO AOO epe 24 co epo pea cea caoyce ox yyaec ae opayec.

oe cyae o opy ay, aaey cpmo, amemo, cmaue yeoo opae -a ocyc ec x pao oe.

pooeoc aeo a ac o ec opae oeec y eoea o 14 o 32 e. p oe ex opax opae (p oax >10 p) oa ooe ocycye.

ecx pao o pe cpo a oeac aee ooc (ec oa peae oy) epooeca coaa, oopa ae oceeo caaec.

ayeec , a aco oop, oe aooye oe eo eo. p cceoa po eo oapyaec paea oe, a ae cee ca epoo, a oee pooo peyoo. B oco oe ye epe po paea aa, a co 23- ee ae pa peeepa. B o e epo ee eco apo o oaee pax ca cepaoeea.

AA BPAEHHX HECX POBEH oy aeoo epoa caoyce ox o peo yxyaec, apacae caoc, oaec eepaypa, yeaec copoc ocea ppoo (CO). Paaec ea apa aoea, c c e y ay aco aa paapo oeu. Boae a aae eoppauecu cupo poo oy, cce ooo, eyoo-e pa, o, cepe ee. Oacoc pooee eo ax opaax, oepaex poooee, ooee eox ocoe -a peoo eoo (oee yx ee) apayooa cocae ocoy ypoy ox o epo.

Mopooec coca po pecae o o oa, a a ce ocae ee eo po ccc e ea cea coce, o po ooceoy ooy p acoo oe. oy a (a p ox oax paeo eoppaeco cpoe pae) ec aae popeccpoa ae. B o pe oco oe aecx yax oeo pae pa peeepa, a cee pae ex ceee opae, pao pox eaoy cxoy p ex oo aa.

poe oo, ccee poeope aac opoee oaye, oeoe coepae ocooo aoa cee oeca xopo. Opaee apye oea eec ceecx paccpoc (oep aea ooc) ec peoe cee acc ea. ox, oepaxc ee, pe aa aoea pooaec o oo o pex ee, a ae cyax c aop cxoo epexo eepy ay occaoee.

AA PAHHEO BOCCTAHOBEH Haao a occaoe xapaepyec opaae eepayp, yyee caoyc, oee aea, occaoee ca. pepaaec pooooc, cea ocaea ceece e. a pao, y ox cpo apacae acca ea. pocxo oceeoe occaoee oaaee po, oopoe y ax ox aaec ee paape aoea a cece peeepa ocoo oa. e oa epepeco po oc pae op eo peyo ooe eo, o o eoaco, peeepaope op pooo, oao ae apacae ocae acya 56- eee, ae co ppoo aae yeac epe 23 eca ocae cxooo ypo.

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