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eo e oo o, o y cex a yac oappo Xpoc Haaca, o ocecx pacpocpae paoaoo aepaa peyae ca epoo opy aocepe. eepaa Accae OOH eape 1955 . ocoaa Hay oe o ec aoo paa oe paoax ocao a eoea opyay cpey. Peo e oaa oe ca cpeca a aa peoea paec ec; o poco oe a oey cyecyeo ooe e. C ex op poo 45 e.

Paoaoc ee aeo e ooe. Hoa aaec o, a ac ee cooa.

Paoaoc cocae ee opye ye cyecoa a ee aoo o apoe a e pcycoa ococe o ooe cao e.

opyee yee copooa oo p, c oopoo, a ceac oaae, aaoc cyecoae ae Bceeo ooo 20 apo e aa.

C oo pee paa ocoo aoe ocecoe pocpaco. Paoae aepa o coca e c oea ee poe. ae ca eoe cea paoae, .. o a pcycy paoae eeca.

B 1896 . payc ye Ap eepe oo ecoo oopaecx aco coa, pa x yca epaa, coepaeo ypa. oce poe aco o oapy ce ax-o ye, pca x ypay.

ao aepecoaac Map Coocap, oopa ea oxo coo paoaoc.

B 1898 . oa e y, ep p oapy, o ypa pepaaec pye xece ee: oo, pa. oo ec po Map Cooco Pa a a cyca y.

A.eepe o epx coyc c ece paoaoo ye a a oo opaa. eepe oo popy c pae apa oy oo o. Map Cooca-p yepa o oaeceoo aoea po. o pae epe 336 eoe, paoax c paoa aepaa o pe, yep peyae oye.

Hecop a o, eoa pya oe aax oox yex apaa co yc a paay oo cax oyx aao cex pee. coae, x yc ooc aoy oy 1945 . Bp x o pe oocca eoeec epa.

Ho paec ooee x oco oc ae coae 1954. epo pe aoo epoca CCCP, 1956 . aoo epoca oep Xoe (Beopa) ..

OCHOB PAAOHHO OMETP Aoc Aoc yae (A) opeeec co aox ep, pacaaxc a ey pee.

E A: eepe (), 1 = 1 pac./c (C) Becceo ee ec p (), 1 = 3,71010 .

cooa oa cooa oa (X) ec epo oaooo oec ye a oyx.

Euu X: yo a uopa (/)(Cu) Becceo ee ec Pee (P), 1P = 2,5810-4 /.

ooea oa ooea oa () opeeec cpe oeco ep, ooeo ee acc oyaeoo eeca.

E : p (p), 1 p = 1 / (C).

Becceo ee ec Pa (pa), 1 pa = 0,01 p.

aea oa uaema oa (H) onpee emc coomoeue H = D 1 peeocoo, aa - ea - ye 5 eex epoo.

= pooo cpx epoo.

10 20 - ac.

aa oe aeca.

E H: ep () (C) B pae coy eccey ey p (p), 1 p = 0,01 .

OEHT PAAOHHOO PCA o aea oa oye ceo opaa epax, oopa po e e ocec, o oyee aoo opaa aeo oo 1 . Ec opaa eo k =1, o pacoo ocoo oa o p pae 0,12, oox ee 0,25, oox ee 0,15, ex 0,12, oo ee 0,03 ..

o aey oy a cooecye oe paaooo pca pocypoa o cey opay, opay pye opao, oy ey aey oy, opaay cyap e oye:

n Hi, H = K pi i=e oe paaooo pca i-oo opaa;

K pi Hi aea oa ye, ooeoo opao.

Oa ae epec epax.

pocypoa yae ee o, oyee pyo e, ye e oey ey aey oy, oopa epec eoeoepax. o ee oeo o oo oe aca paaooo opae.

ooey cooy oy ye, oecee ee pee, aa oocm nooeo u cnouuoo o. Mooc cooo o -ye oo opee, ec eca oa oa -ocoa, xapaepya a paoy . Paa epeae oe -ocoe.

uepeuaa -ocoa oocc opeeeo ooepeeco -cepa ooa. oa -o coa paa cye epeax -ocox.

oa oaoa -ocoa aoo ooa opeeec a ooc cooo o pee ax a ac, oopa coaec oe oo -coo aoc 3,7107 a pacco 1 c (10-2 ) e aao pa. B cooec c opeeee R oaoa -ocoa paa (P a/ K = P A (cg), e P ooc cooo o P/; R paccoe c; A Q aoc .

Peoeyea epaypa 1. poo .M., H.. epa a. M.: Haya, 1972.

2. Cyx .B. O ypc . Aoa epa a. . 2. epa a. M.: Haya, 1989.

3. oye .. oep aa o opyx ye. M.: epoaoa, 1986.

4. ec B.. Meo eepoa ye. M.: epoaoa, 1987.

5. Peo A.H. Meca ooeca a. M.: Bca oa, 1987.

6. ao B.. ypc oep. M.: Aoa, 1978.

7. Mapyc .. Aoa ep paaoa eoacoc. M.: epoaoa, 1988.

8. oo B.. Cpao o paaoo eoacoc. M.: epoaoa, 1987.

9. Bepoa B.T. p. ypc paaoo eoacoc. M.: paa, 1995.

10. .A. p. Paaoa eoacoc aa: Cpao. M.: Mea, 1996.

e PMOE OCBEHHOE ECTBE OHPX EH HA OOECE OET. PEA ETO HA OEHE o cee peca oceoaeoc ao oec opyx ye a ooece oe, pee a. 2.

Taa man oecmu uouupyux uyeu a uoouecue oem opo ee e oep ca aa, c 1. o-xeca ca (epeoc ep 10-12 10-e oa oye a epo paeop) 2. Xece opee (cooe paa, 10-7 c e oyee oey o eooo paoec) aco 3. ooeype opee (e, Mpocey yeoe co ..) ecoo 4. Pae ooece e (e eo, ac e e ox) 5. Oaee ooece e, o ce o co ooee oyxoe, eeece e M paccope ece poecc aoec opyeo ye c eeco. poecc pocxo a o, a eo aep poea a oe opooe pe (10-24 10-14 c). o pocxo ae ae co po ooecoy ey o oe a o opoc, aae ye paccapa y aep a opooe co oey pao e, aa oopx coco aoo.

Haeee ye xece ooeype poecc, a ae aoc 2- 4- ca c 5-. oa e pecaec oo ooc oca c eoy poecco, cax ecoe ooee ep c oe ooec ea, ooy paccop eoope aoee yee poecc, pocxoe a 3- ca.

CBOOHOPAAHE POECC P OEH BO BOHX PACTBOPOB Cooe paa o epec epae ao oey c ecape epoo a ee ope. Cooe paa oo eca peaoococo, a a oaa oooc ca ecape epo c aao epoo pyo paae ooe ya epo aoa. py coa, cooe paa oy aeopa (oce) oopa (occaoe) epoo. a aep coco a 70 90% o, ooy ao paccope, o pocxo c oo eoop o pacopa p oye. o oece opyx ye oe e pece y poecc oa c opaoae cpx coox epoo, oaax o ep, ooeo apex oey o:

H2O H2O+ + e.

Opaoac epo (e) oceeo epe oe ep peyae pax poecco o ex op, oa eo e axa pya oeya, oopa pepac opaeo apey oeyy o:

e- + H2O H2Oo poecc ooceo ee. poe oo, epo oe ca papoa, .e. opye oeya o (a, apep, a eex oax), a o ecoo oey o pepac o yy opepoa o apae epoy, eey opae ap. papoa epo e- aq p oao eepaype ocaoo cae, o cocoe pea c pa oeya pacopax. Tae pea oee epo p oee cox oepax pacopa. ocoy oepa eec yp e ae ocaoo coo, oee x ax papoax epoo ee eo ooe aee. H H2O-, e c ca oeya, H2O+ aa x pacaaec, opay o coo paa:

H2O+ H+ + OH, H2O- H+ + OH(oo ooae ecape epo coooo paaa).

p ax 1000 B ep, ooaex co oo, opayc ceye poy: 26 papoax epoo, 26 pocx paao, 4 ao(e- aq) (OH) a oopoa eooe oeco . Ha(H) H2 H2O oee peaoococo e- aq, OH, H, ee pooeoc ooo ecox cey, p yco ocyc pyx peaeo oye, cax co cpyypo cao o, cceoa oopo ceac poao pcaoe ae. O oy ae cya pea py c pyo epoac (opaoa ap):

H + H H2, OH + OH H2O2, H + OH H2O cya pea c py oeya o, apep, H2O + H H2 + OH, a ae peapoa c poya peyx pea, oopx yacoa paa:

H2O2 + OH H2O + HO2 ( poepec paa). Xece coca HO2 poyo paccopex xecx pea e xec coca coox paao, .e. o coco pa ao oopoa opaecx oey a RH. yo R ooaa c oeyy, a cee ooo aoa oopoa, o e pacca opoo ce ee: e oee, o ao cyae ac epecye c ooo, oe-o oo aoa oopoa, xo ocao oey R oe coepa ae oo aoo oopoa:

RH + OH R + H2O, RH + H R + HTae pea ey oe ox paao. Heaco o coeo pocxoe cooe paa R oy cya pea c ooec oeya po ocec paoooecoy opae eox cpyyp.

PMOE OCBEHHOE ECTBE OHPX EH HA OPAHECE BEECTBA OOECE MAPOMOE Paccopee xece pea ocoa a aaeoo oceoo ec ye, oa cooe paa, opyee oeya o, cya aece ocpeo p epeoce ep ye ooec oeya. poe ece ye o eocpeceoe aoece opyeo ye c pec oeya, oope pepaac cooe paa:

E + +.

RH RH + e- R + H Ha pc. 10 ycoo oaao pae ey p oce ece opyeo ye. a pao, ca, o a oceoo ec oee cyece, a a e oca ae coco peo a 7090 % o, xo ooec e ao, a pocxo opeee.

Cooe paa oy ae aoecoa c oeya pacopeoo copoa, po oe epecx paao oopoa. oea eoc oec ye a e e pcyc copoa eca a ucopo em. O ca c yeee oeca coox paao, opayxc pcyc copoa o ece opyeo ye. Baoece copoa c papoa co o paaa, apep,, po H e- aq oe ooceo cax poepecx paao epec oopoa:

H2O O2 + H HO2, O2 + e- aq O2 -, + O2 + H HO, 2HO H2O2 + O2.

E a) ) E H O H + OH E E - E E - E Puc. 10. poe (a) u oceoe () ecmue uouupyeo uyeu:

1 uouupyee uyeue E, 2 pumueca oeya;

3 uouupyee uyeue ; 4 uyu coox E - E pauao pumueco oeye Oao e ao, p oce opao ooeya caa paao, o cyae oa oe aoecoa c pacope copoo cey opao:

R + O2 RO (opaec epec paa). o oe ec ye cyece ooy, o p oo oece RH oo oy ey pea:

RO 2 + RH ROH + R.

e ocee pea paoe c o pe aece ooecoo opee. O pocxo pepo 30 pa cpee, e oyppye pea, apep: R ce pyo oop oopoa, e opayec caa oeya RH, .e. pocxo occaoee.

poecc aoec coox paao exa x ooe yae paaoa x. ac ao o, o o x poecco po oe ooec opeax poyo, pye opaoa eocpeceo ooec oacx poyo, pe e pea. oco x pea apyec pcyc pacopeoo copoa. Hapep, cyecy pe oaaeca oo, o paa OH yacye poeccax opaoa oox papo e H (eocpoyeoo co), xpoocox aeppa (ooe o op), e eo aep eoax.

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